The Outcomes Assessment Toolbox: Assessment Bibliography

The Assessment Bibliography focuses on studies assessing education abroad outcomes with the aims of disseminating information to the Forum membership and encouraging new research and practice.

To search the bibliography for key words or phrases: PC users press CTRL+F, Mac users press Command+F, then enter your search terms.

2016

Anderson, Christine L., Lorenz, Karl, White, Michael Instructor Influence on Student Intercultural Gains and learning during Instructor-Led, Short-Term Study Abroad Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Vol. 28 (November 2016): 1-23.
In this study, the authors build on their 2012-2014 research to further explore whether intentional instructor engagement with intercultural content while on site is critical in fostering student intercultural growth. Using Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI), the study analyses the influence of gender, prior language study, country challenge, instructor IDI score, and number of times the instructor has led the program to quantitatively measure students’ intercultural sensitivity gains. The key finding confirms that frequent and spontaneous facilitation by instructors has a strong impact on achieving intercultural gains in students. These instructor interventions include creating a safe space to debrief cultural challenges, supporting and guiding students through the incidents of cultural discord, and creating a healthy intra-group dynamic.
Kronholz, Julia F.; Osborn, Debra S. The Impact of Study Abroad Experiences on Vocational Identity among College Students Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Vol. 27 (April 2016): 70-84.
This study focuses on the effects of study abroad experiences on the development of students’ career decision-making and vocational identity. Using the Cognitive Information Processing (CIP) theory, the authors conclude that study abroad experiences significantly impact college students’ self-knowledge, interests, and skills that relate to career options. Their findings also suggest that following a study abroad experience, students demonstrate a more positive outlook on their career options and have clearer picture of career goals and vocational identity.
Prieto-Flores, Oscar, Feu, Jordi, Casademont, Xavier Assessing Intercultural Competence as a Result of Internationalization at Home Efforts: A Case Study From the Nightingale Mentoring Program Journal of Studies in International Education, Vol. 20 (5): 437-453.
In this case study from the Nightingale Mentoring Program, the authors discuss challenges for assessing intercultural competence of college students participating in a community-based mentoring program. Outcomes are based on mixed-method research from a survey given to a treatment group that participated in a mentoring program (n = 95) and a control group (n = 71), and on 10 daily life stories from university students who were enrolled and participated in the mentoring program. Results show scarce differences between groups on some measures but significant differences on others. The resulting hypotheses and discussions could be helpful to scholars and administrators.
Smith, Patricia Joanne; Mrozek, Lawrene J. Evaluating the application of program outcomes to study abroad experiences Honors in Practice, Vol. 12, 9-33.
This article examines self-reported enrichments to the academic experiences of Schedler Honors College  (University of Central Arkansas) study abroad students who studied abroad during the 2014-2015 academic year. The ex-post facto study which had a population of fifty-five students (a 95% participation rate) focused on the following three areas: experience and comfort at traveling abroad; impact of studying abroad  on the Schedler Honors College’s seven program areas (of communication, critical inquiry, diversity, responsible living/ethics, interdisciplinary learning, integrative scholarship, and leadership development); and financial support.  Of the College’s programmatic foci, results indicated that studying abroad had its greatest impact on students in the areas of diversity and leadership development.  The researchers also found that studying abroad affected students self-efficacy as students reported that they became more comfortable traveling abroad.

2015

Anderson, Philip J.; Hubbard, Ann; Lawton, Leigh Student Motivation to Study Abroad and Their Intercultural Development Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Vol. 26 (Fall 2015): 39-52.
The study focuses on analyzing the relationship between the motivations underlying students’ decision to study abroad and their intercultural development. Global Perspective Inventory (GPI), applied as a pre-post measure, is used to assess the students’ intercultural development. Motivation to Study Abroad (MSA), instrument developed by Anderson and Lawton, is used to measure students’ motivation. While the results suggest that motivation is an important factor linked to the choice of program destination and the living arrangements selected, the study found no significant pre-post differences in GPI scores linked to motivation.
McLeod, Mark; Carter, Vince; Nowicki, Steve; Tottenham, Dana; Wainwright, Philip; Wyner, Dana Evaluating the Study Abroad Experience Using the Framework of Rotter’s Social Learning Theory Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Vol. 26 (Fall 2015): 30-38.
This study uses Rotter’s Social Learning Theory (SLT) as a framework to examine the effects of study abroad programs on participants’ expectancies of personal control and self-esteem. The research conducted using focus groups in St. Andrews, Scotland and Paris, France, revealed that the study abroad experience has a positive effect on the participants in terms of their locus of control. The locus of control became more internal for study abroad program participants, leading to increased capacity and success to solve problems, better personal relationships, and academic achievement. Self-esteem scores did not change significantly as a result of the study abroad experience.
Poag, Trevor; Sperandio, Jill Changing Minds: The Impact of Study Abroad Components on Students’ Changes in their Religious Faith Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Vol. 26 (Fall 2015): 144-166.
This article discusses the assesement of the Latin American Studies Program (LASP) operated by the Council for Christian Colleges and University (CCCU). Authors contacted the 1,793 program alumni with a qualitative survey tool seeking to understand if they experienced a change in their religious faith while abroad. Researchers employed the Engle and Engle classificaiton system and Gardners framework of mind change to develop their study, research questions, and survey. With a 24% response rate (n=430), the authors found significant change in students’ religious faith while abroad with LASP.
Savicki, Victor; Brewer, Elizabeth Assessing Study Abroad: Theory, Tools, and Practice Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing
Offering a nontechnical approach to assessment, this book discusses theory, tools and strategies, and the process of implementation of assessment in study abroad. It also includes an extensive selection of case studies.
Tarrant, Michael A., Rubin, Donald L., Stoner, Lee The Effect of Study Abroad on Intercultural Competence: Results from a Longitudinal Quasi-Experimental Study Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Vol. 26 (Fall 2015): 68-82.
This study examines a broad range of linguistic exchange activities at Swiss upper secondary schools which differ with respect to some important features (duration, accommodation, affective and linguistic starting conditions, provisions for cultural interaction, etc.) in order to answer the following research questions: 1) What effects do exchange activities have on the development of intercultural competence? 2) What criteria for success can be identified?
Shadowen, Noel L.; Chieffo, Lisa P.; Guerra, Nancy G. The Global Engagement Measurement Scale (GEMS): A New Scale for Assessing the Impact of Education Abroad and Campus Internationalization Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Vol. 26 (Fall 2015): 231-247.
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a brief education abroad assessment that focuses on key constructs, is easy to administer, and is publicly available. The authors first identified a small set of constructs that were specific, measurable, and likely to change as a result of short- or long-term education abroad programs. The four specific constructs included:  cultural engagement, knowledge of the host site, ambiguity tolerance, and diversity openness. This study examines the psychometric properties of the Global Engagement Measurement Scale (GEMS) and the preliminary evidence for validity of new scales and factors in assessing student development of non-academic outcomes following an education abroad program.
Watson, Jeff R.; Wolfel, Richard The Intersection of Language and Culture in Study Abroad: Assessment and Analysis of Study Abroad Outcomes Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Vol. 25 (Spring 2015): 57-72.
This article focuses on the relationship between socialization aspects during study abroad, such as interactions with host families/native speakers and time spent participating in cultural activities, and gains in both language proficiency and intercultural competence. An overview of research on language proficiency and intercultural competence as outcomes of study abroad is followed by a presentation and discussion of a study that explores links between language and culture learning from the perspective of Second Language Socialization (SLS).  The study includes quantitative and qualitative self-report assessments and investigates the statistical relationship between language proficiency, intercultural competence, and socialization variables.
West, Charlotte Assessing Learning Outcomes for Education Abroad International Educator, Nov.-Dec. 15: 36-41.
This article from NAFSA’s International Educator magazine includes information about the importance of designing measurable learning outcomes for education abroad before deciding on an assessment instrument. The author includes information and advice from four different institutions who provide examples of ways to seek input from the larger campus community when designing outcomes for education abroad. The article includes a description of available instruments, a Top 10 Myths about assessing education abroad learning outcomes and a list of best practices. Practitioners give advice about selecting the right tools to assess education abroad outcomes and discuss the pros and cons of using commercial assessment tools or designing a custom instrument. Finally, the article delves into the benefits of using assessment to engage faculty, students and administration by sharing results and implementing a continuous improvement process.
Spenader, Allison J., Retka, Peggy The Role of Pedagogical Variables in Intercultural Development: A Study of Faculty-led Programs Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Vol. 25 (Spring 2015): 20-36.
This study examines intercultural development gains in study abroad participants, measured by pre- and post-program testing by the Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI), as related to personal, contextual, and pedagogical variables. The contextual and personal variables include five distinct program locations, different language use and requirements, and varied housing arrangements. Pedagogical focus by program is examined in the context of coursework and experiential learning features, such as course-embedded excursions and service learning opportunities. Pedagogical variables were more explicitly linked to intercultural gains in this study. Questions remain, however, about the specific design and use of service learning and the role and training of the faculty director as a cultural mentor.

2014

Gordon, Dennis R. Curriculum integration versus education for global citizenship:  A (disciplinary) view from the international relations classroom Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 24(Fall), 59-72
This essay uses the lens of international relations to argue that the purpose of study abroad should be disciplinary learning. Disciplinary theories and tools can prepare students for study abroad as well as help them process and apply that they have learned post study abroad.  Further, study abroad should take advantage of the curriculum that already exists at universities around the world.  In contrast, proposing that study abroad should prepare students for global citizenship or develop their intercultural competency is problematic and can undercut efforts to integrate study abroad into the curriculum, something that rests on opportunities to take courses that advance students’ studies on the home campus.
Jochum, Christopher Measuring the effects of a semester abroad on students’ oral proficiency gains: A comparison of at-home and study abroad Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 24(Fall), 93-104
This quasi-experimental pre- and post-test study sought to understand the oral proficiency development between two groups of students: those who remained on campus (at home) to study language and those that spent one semester abroad. Unlike previous studies, the ACTFL Oral Proficiency Interview by Computer (ORIc) was used. Eighteen students were tested (9 at home, 9 abroad). While both groups showed development, the abroad students’ gains were both much greater than those of the at home students and statistically significant.
Lane-Toomey, Cara U.S. government factors influencing an expansion of study abroad in the Middle East/North Africa Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 24(Fall), 122-140
“In what ways has the U.S. government’s focus on national security in regards to the MENA region influenced undergraduate students to choose the MENA region as their study abroad destination?” This question was addressed by collecting data using a survey and focus groups; the control group were students studying abroad in “common” countries (W. Europe and Australia). Three topics were chosen to provide quantitative data:  career intentions, scholarship support, and concern for national security. Findings from 601 respondents show that students studing abroad in the MENA countries reported significantly higher correspondence between study abroad and their career goals, were somewhat more likely to be supported by government scholarships, and displayed a higher concern for national security. In summary, students who study abroad in the MENA countries are more likely to be influenced by government-related factors.
Liu, Li Language proficiency, reading development, and learning context Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 24(Fall), 73-92
Reading acquisition among seventy-three Chinese language learners (35 at home, 38 abroad) at elementary, intermediate, and advanced levels was examined with an emphasis on reading strategies.  Methods included comprehension tests, a think-aloud protocol, a strategy questionnaire, and observation.  While there was little difference in reading acquisition between at home and abroad elementary language learners, there was signifcant difference at the intermediate and advanced levels, with abroad students making much more progress.  Data revealed that study abroad learners read far more than their at home counterparts, and far beyond their Chinese language text books.
Murphy, Dianna; Sahakyan, Narek; Yong-Yi, Doua; Sieloff Magnan, Sally The impact of study abroad on the global engagement of university graduates Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 24(Fall), 1-23
The study expands on findings of the SAGE project, which focused on the effects of study abroad on graduates’ global civic engagement. To address the limitations of SAGE, the study introduces a control group of graduates who did not did study abroad. The result confirms some but not all of the SAGE findings. The level of civic engagement is higher on issues of international importance among alumni who studied abroad. The same is true for the practice of voluntary simplicity (consumer behavior) and leisure activity connected to other people and cultures, as well as some, but not all, areas of philanthropy and knowledge production. By contrast, no difference was found between the study abroad and non-study abroad groups concerning social entrepreneurship. Domestic civic engagement presented a mixed picture.
Savage, Baron L.; Hughes, Haning Z. How does short-term foreign language immersion stimulate language learning? Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 24(Fall), 103-120
This study employed mixed methods (interviews, questionnaires, photo-journals produced by students and pre- and post-testing) to assess the development of reading and listening skills in a short-term language immersion program.  140 U.S. Air Force Academy cadets participted in an intensive Chinese language summer immmersion program at Nanjing University.  While all made gains, the degree of the gains depended on individual students’ motivation, effort, and willingness to make mistakes.  Surprisingly, the scores of students who had spent a prior summer on the same program were very similar to those of first-time participants, suggesting that students are unable to maintain the language they have learned when they return to the Academy, where the number of hours of language instruction is quite limited.
Stemler, Steven; Imada, Toshie; Sorkin, Carolyn Development and validation of the Wesleyan Intercultural Competence Scale (WICS): A tool for measuring the impact of study abroad experiences Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 24(Fall),  25-47
This study discusses different approaches to developing and assessing intercultural development among students and reviews relevant theories, best practices, and instruments.  It then introduces the Wesleyan Intercultural Competence Scale (WICS). Based on Bennett’s DMIS model, WICS links questions to 16 specific situations students are likely to encounter during study abroad in order to assess the behavioral aspects of intercultural competence. Testing of WICS proved that it can measure intercultural development over time, and that the nature of the situations encountered helps determine the degree of development. WICS overcomes some of the limitations of other instruments by examining actual behaviour abroad, being easy to administer and adapt, and being available at no cost.

2013

Engle, Lilli The rewards of qualitative assessment appropriate to study abroad Frontiers: Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad XXII, Winter/Spring, 111-126
To increase study abroad participation rates, study abroad has been marketed as a product be consumed, with the result that students may not be challenged to engage with cultural, social and national differences. Yet this engagement is a prerequisite for achieving study abroad’s generally accepted learning goals. An examination of 50 post-study abroad survey instruments found a greater focus on satisfaction than learning, and that questions often asked students to make value judgements, rather than to critically reflect on both the experiece and the student’s own role in shaping it.  The author calls for institutions and organizations to develop clearer expectations for what they hope students will learn, to design programs in accordance with these, and to help students develop a critical, reflective lens on their study abroad that also takes into consideration their responsibility.   Examples of mission statements and survey questions promoting critical reflection are given.
Long, Theodore E. From study abroad to global studies: Reconstructing international education for a globalized world Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad 22, pp 25-36
This article explores the limits of study abroad as defined by traditional and current paradigms and calls for a reconstruction of international education. At the heart of the author’s proposal lie three foundational principles: 1) a genuinely global perspective that informs the development work, 2) a coherent program of Global Studies that has its own integrity, and 3) study that guides experience. The author proposes that global studies must be engaged with issues of global peace and justice, critical aspects of global civil society.
Palmer, Jeremy Intercultural competence and language variety on study abroad programs: L2 learners in Arabic Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad XXII. Winter/Spring 2013. 58-83
While studying Arabic is becoming more mainstream in the U.S., studying abroad in the Arab world has yet to catch on. This article presents results of a project investigating linguistic and cultural experiences of ninety students learning Arabic while studying abroad in the Arab world. More specifically, the research focuses on factors which may influence adaptations to learning higher and/or lower registers of speech. It is assumed there are cultural advantages to focusing one’s study on either more formal or informal linguistic styles.
Rexeisen, Richard Study abroad and the boomerang effect:  The end is only the beginning Frontiers: Interdiscplinary Journal of Study Abroad XXII, Winter/Spring, 166-181
In order to understand whether the developmental benefits of study abroad endure over time, the author used the Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) with 139 undergraduate students divided into cohorts of 46, 47, and 46. Conducted over a three-year period, the study involved administration of the IDI four months prior to the start of a faculty-led, semester-long program in London, one week before its end, and four months later, and predicted that while students would make gains in cross-cultural sensitivity, these would decline post-program and there would be no net gain in cross-cultural develoment.  Gender was predicted to have a moderating effect on both of these.  The findings supported the hypotheses about gains in cross-cultural sensitivity and declines in cross-cultural development, and moderate support for the role of gender.  The post-program decline is correlated with a “boomerang” effect in which, post program, students romanticize the study abroad location and culture as being superior to their own.  Study abroad reentry programming may need to take the boomerang effect into account to help students contextualize their study abroad experience in relation to other life experiences.
Savicki, Victor The effects of affect on study abroad students Frontiers: Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad XXII, Winter/Spring, 131-147.
Study abroad students are faced with acculturative stress by virtue of enountering differences in assumptions, values, and expectations of daily living in their host culture. While certain levels of disequilibrium can encourage and promote growth in intercultural competence, disequilibrium can also edge over into discontent. The general assumption of the study is that lower affect (lower positive affect and higher negative affect) will negatively impact various affect, behavioral, and cognitive acculturation indicators. Separate scales used to measure affective, cognitive, and behavioral skill indicators were applied in a study abroad program in Argentina.It was determined that there is a range of student readiness for study abroad that complicates any attempt to standardized expectations for the study abroad experience. Study abroad professionals would do well to view the experience holistically (pre-departure through re-entry) when developing acculturation strategies.
Savicki, Victor; Arrue, Carmen; & Binder, Frauke Language fluency and study abroad adaptation Frontiers: Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad XXII, Winter/Spring, 37-57
This study examines the relationship of language fluency to a variety of outcomes of study abroad. The primary question is “Does the requirement for foreign language fluency lead to better study abroad outcomes?” The study follows Ward’s ABC model of acculturation which includes three categories (affect, behavior, and cognition) to measure outcomes. The general hypothesis is that prior language fluency will enhance student study abroad outcomes on all ABC categories.The study concludes that instituting a language fluency requirement for study abroad does not necessarily translate into students using the language on a day-to-day basis outside of classes. It is important to determine the impact of fluency within social contexts on a student’s awareness of sociolinguistic factors. The length of the program is another important consideration in measuring language fluency, as well as anxiety levels expressed by the student while using the language during the study abroad experience.
Stebleton, Michael J.; Soria, Krista M.; & Cherney, Blythe T. The high impact of education abroad: college students’ engagement in international experience and the development of intercultural competencies Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad 22, pp 1-24
This study attempts to discover whether different international activities yield different outcomes for the development of students’ global and intercultural competencies. The research compares students’ self reported data from five different types of international travel activities associated with different outcomes in students’ development of global and intercultural competencies. The five types of activities studied include: university study abroad programs, international service-learning programs, international volunteering, work or internships abroad, and travel abroad for recreation.
Williams, Tracy Rundstrom Examine your LENS:  A tool for interpreting cultural differences Frontiers: Interdiscplinary Journal of Study Abroad XXII, Winter/Spring, 148-165
Most study abroad students want to experience a new culture, but are not prepared to understand the different viewpoints they will confront.  Tools such as the DIE exercise, Ladder of Inference, and Critical Events, while effective to some degree, have limitations that the LENS technique overcomes these by integrating research on experiential learning, intercultural competency, and millenial students.  LENS uses four steps to make sense of intercultural misunderstandings:  Look objectively, Examine your assumptions, Note other possibilities, and Substantiate with locals.  Examinations of student essays about intercultural misunderstandings abroad suggest that LENS does help students avoid making simple judgments about them, by providing them with a straightforward, memorable technique to work through them.

2012

Batey, J. & Lupi, M. Reflections on student interns’ cultural awareness developed through a short-term international internship. Teacher Education Quarterly, 39(3), 25-44.
Devillar, R. & Jiang, B. From student teaching abroad to teaching in the U.S. classroom:  Effects of global experiences on local instructional practice. Teacher Education Quarterly, 39(3), 7-24
Greenfield, Emily A.; Davis, Rebecca T.; Fedor, James P. The effect of international social work education: Study abroad versus on-campus courses Journal of Social Work Education. Vol. 48, no. 4. 739-761.
The purpose of this study was to assess quantitatively the effect on bachelor students’ cross-cultural adaptability using a pre-post design. Significant changes were found on all subscales as well as on the total score, thus supporting the use of these short-term trips for this purpose.
Jones, Susan R.; Niehaus, Elizabeth; Rowan-Kenyon, Heather T.; Cilente Skendall, Kristan; Mei-Yen Ireland, S. The meaning students make as participants in short-term programs Journal of College Student Development, Mar./Apr., 2012, Vol. 53, Issue 2, 201-220.
The purpose of this article is to present the results of a multi-site case study designed to investigate students’ experiences as participants in four week-long immersion programs (New York City, Peru, the Czech Republic, Chicago). Results highlight the significance of the context of the trips and specific characteristics of the trip (e.g., getting out of the bubble, boundary crossing, and personalizing), which served as the springboard for learning and meaning making. In particular, meaning making focused on developing new understandings of social issues, privilege, and stereotypes, reframing experiences upon participants’ return, and shifting sense of purpose and career planning.
Lee, Christine S.; Therriault, David J., and Linderholm, Tracy On the cognitive benefits of cultural experience:  Exploring the relationship between studying abroad and creative thinking Applied Cognitive Psychology 26(5), 768-778
Drawing from research that shows a positive relationship between multicultural experiences and creative cognition, the present study investigates creative thinking as a possible cognitive benefit gained from studying abroad. The domain generality and specificity of creative thinking is also explored. Undergraduate students completed a general measure and a culture specific measure of creative thinking. Performance on the two creative thinking tasks were compared between students who have studied abroad, students who are planning to study abroad, and students who have not and do not plan to study abroad. Results showed that students who studied abroad outperformed the two groups of students who did not study abroad on both the general and culture specific measures of creative thinking. Findings from this study provide evidence that studying abroad supports complex cognitive processes that underlie creative thinking in culture specific and domain general settings.
Tarrant, M.A. & Lyons, K. The effect of short-term educational travel programs on environmental citizenship. Environmental Education Research, 8 (3), 403-416.
Short-term study abroad is the fastest growing area of international education and interest is growing in how various forms of such study abroad correspond to global citizenship.  This study looked at 650 students studying sustainable development in Austalia and New Zealand in short programs.  The short-term study abroad significantly decreased the differences in environmental citizenship scores for first time study abroad students and program destination, but increased the difference for males and females.
Twombly, Susan B.; Salisbury, Mark H.; Tumanut, Shannon D.; & Klute, Paul Study abroad in a new global century:  Renewing the promise, refining the purpose. ASHE Higher Education Report 38 (4).  Ward, Kelly & Wolf-Wendel, L. E. (Eds.) Hoboken, N.J.:  Wiley
Beginning with a discussion of the history and purpose of study abroad and a review of program types and participation trends, this report reviews research on study abroad learning outcomes. The authors argue that study abroad’s contribution to intercultural development is probably overestimated, that study abroad programs be designed around desired educational outcomes and incorporate a developmental model, and that study abroad be integrated with students’ other educational experiences.  The authors also suggest that assessment be incorporated into exisiting processes and be used to improve practice. Finally, the authors propose that current conceptions of study abroad may be limiting.

2011

Adams, Tony; Banks, Melissa; Olsen, Alan Benefits of international education: Enriching students, enriching communities. In Davis, Dorothy; Mackintosh, Bruce (Eds.). Making a difference: Australian international education, 9-46. Sydney : University of New South Wales Press.
International education has made an extraordinary contribution to Australia and changed the way this country is perceived throughout the world, expanding both its intellectual capital and international influence. This introductory chapter outlines the increasing benefits and outcomes of international education in Australia, identifying the change in overseas student policy in 1985 as the starting point. The benefits are the direct result of the innovation of individuals and institutions, with international student programs playing an important role in accelerating the move towards multiculturalism and globalisation in Australian institutions. The economic benefits of international education have been well documented, but the more intangible benefits also need to be acknowledged. The achievement of these benefits has not been without its challenges, which are considered along with the benefits in this chapter or elsewhere in the publication.
Ahn, S. Exchange students as actor-network: Following Korean exchange students in Swedish higher education Journal of Studies in International Education 10(1), 46-57
This article explores how Korean exchange students organized their studies during exchange programs in Swedish higher education. For most students, the programs became a disordered period in relation to their education. The value of exchange studies seems mainly to be extra-curricular. Drawing upon actor network theory, the article argues that the students’ way of organizing their studies is based not only on individual choice but also on relations to other actors in a network.
Cardon,Peter W.; Marshall, Bryan;Poddar, Amit Using typologies to interpret study abroad preferences of American business students: Applying a tourism framework to international education Journal of Education for Business, 86 (2) 111-118
The authors describe research that applies a tourist framework to study abroad attitudes and preferences. A total of 371 university business students in the Southern region of the United States completed a survey that included the International Tourist Role scale and study abroad attitudes and preferences. These students were grouped into one of 4 international tourist typologies: familiarity seekers, controlled exposure seekers, spontaneous dissimilarity seekers, and cultural dissimilarity seekers. Identifying the combination of travel preferences held by members of these 4 typologies can help business educators and study abroad professionals design, develop, and market study abroad programs for business students.
Devi S. Drexler, Devi S.; Campbell, Dale F. Student development among community college participants in study abroad programs Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 35 (8), 608-619
For decades, institutions of higher education have provided study abroad opportunities for college students wishing to increase and expand their intellectual and social skills. While many universities around the country have supported successful international exchange and study abroad programs, there is little research on community college study abroad programs and their impact on student development. Therefore, this article examines specific vectors that impact student development before and after study abroad participation in nine community colleges using Chickering’s Theory of Student Development and SAS statistical methods.
Ellwood, Constance Undoing the knots: Identity transformations in a study abroad programme Educational Philosophy and Theory, 43(9),  960-978
Despite the ‘identity turn’ of recent years, modernist notions of identity continue to impact  the ways in which study abroad experiences are conceived, resulting in failures both to facilitate productive change and to recognise blocked, or ‘knotted’, attempts at change. The discussion considers data collected in an ethnographic study of a tertiary-level English language programme in an Australian university and suggests that a closer look at the specific experiences of four individual study abroad students, through the lens of the Deleuzian concepts of the molar, the molecular, and the line of flight, offers a way of looking at identity which may help both educators and learners open more usefully to the possibibilities of transformation.
Gullekson, Nicole L.; Tucker, Mary L.; Coombs Jr., Garth; Wright, Scott B. Examining intercultural growth for business students in short-term study abroad programs: Too good to be true? Journal of Teaching in International Business, 22 (2), 91-106
Changes in ethnocentrism, intercultural communication apprehension, international awareness and activities were examined in business students participating in a 16-day consulting program abroad and compared to a control group of students at the home university. Anticipated changes in the study abroad students were found; however, when compared to the control group, the changes had little significance. Study abroad students had higher ethnocentrism, intercultural communication apprehension and lower intercultural awareness prior to going abroad; thus, the study abroad experience brought the STSA participants to the post-test levels of the control group. Implications for STSA programs and directions for future research are discussed.
Houser, Chris; Brannstrom, Christian; Quiring, Steven  M.; Lemmons, Kelly K. Study abroad field trip improves test performance through engagement and new social networks Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 35 (4), 513-528
Although study abroad trips provide an opportunity for affective and cognitive learning, it is largely assumed that they improve learning outcomes. The purpose of this study is to determine whether a study abroad field trip improved cognitive learning by comparing test performance between the study abroad participants (n = 20) and their peers who did not participate (n = 365). Test performance was statistically identical between these groups before and immediately after the study abroad program. On the final exam, the study abroad participants scored significantly higher. Qualitative methods were used to identify increased engagement with the course material and the creation of new social networks as likely explanations.
Morais, Duarte B.;Ogden, Anthony C. Initial development and validation of the Global Citizenship Scale Journal of Studies in International Education, 15 (5) 445-466
This article reports on the initial development of a theoretically grounded and empirically validated scale to measure global citizenship. The methodology employed is multi-faceted, including two expert face validity trials, extensive exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with multiple datasets, and a series of three small-group interviews utilising nominal group technique to verify the scope of the global citizenship construct. The findings provide support for a three-dimensional Global Citizenship Scale that encompasses social responsibility, global competence, and global civic engagement. Global competence and global civic engagement are both strong dimensions of global citizenship, and each has three reliable subdimensions that add further refinement to the construct. Social responsibility proves to be a dimension of global citizenship with a less clearly defined structure. The Global Citizenship Scale and its conceptual framework have important implications for education abroad outcomes research and practice.
Nyaupane, G., Paris, C., & Teye, V. Study abroad motivations, destination selection and pre-trip attitude formation International Journal of Tourism Research, 13, 205-217
This study examines the role of motivations, prior travel experience, social ties and destination choice in pre-trip attitude formation among university students who had recently participated in study abroad programs to the South Pacific or Europe.The results revealed that academic motivations and social ties influence students’ destination selection. Social motivation emerged as the most important factor influencing attitude prior to study abroad, while the intended destination mediates the effect of social motivation on pre-trip attitude formation.
Petersen, Jeffrey Chaichana;Milstein, Tema; Chen, Yea-Wen; Nakazawa, Masato Self-efficacy in intercultural communication: The development and validation of a sojourner’s scale Journal of International and Intercultural Communication. Vol. 4, no. 4. 290-309
This study designed and validated an instrument for measuring sojourners’ intercultural and everyday communication self-efficacy. Factor analysis of a Likert-type scale completed by Japan Exchange and Teaching (JET) programme respondents (N= 213) identified a unidimensional-factor solution with 34-items loading. It revealed negative, positive, and no correlation with existing scales that lent validity to the resulting Sojourner Self-Efficacy in Communication (SSEC) Scale.
Ritz, A. A. The educational value of short-term study abroad programs as course components Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, 11 (2), 164-178
Data collected during short-term study abroad in Costa Rica as part of a course on sustainable tourism development suggest that when well-designed, such study abroad can provide significant learning and holistic education, while promoting transformative learning.  16 undergraduate and graduate students studied social, environmental, and economic dimensions of tourism.
Rowan-Kenyon, H.T. & Niehaus, E.K. One year later: The influence of short-term study abroad experiences on students Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 48(2), 213-228
Research with students who had studied abroad for one week was conducted one year later and revealed that students who had integrated the experience into subsequent studies still found meaning in the study abroad, where as students who did not integrate the experience into subsequent studies did not find the same meaning.
Salisbury, Mark H. The effect of study abroad on intercultural competence among undergraduate college students University of Iowa.  Doctoral dissertation.
This study used longitudinal data on undergraduate educational outcomes from pre-and post-test measures, institutional and self-reported pre-college characteristics, and college experiences to determine the effect of study abroad on intercultural competence.  In doing so, it sought to address the question of whether differences between stduents who study abroad and those do not existed prior to participation. Data came from a 2006 cohort of 1,593 participants in the Wabash National Study on Liberal Arts Education.  The study employed propensity scroe mathing as well as covariate adjustment methods to account for pre-college characteristics, college experiences, the selection effect, and the clustereed nature of data to cross-validate findings and provide guidance for future research.  The study concludes that study abroad has a postive effect on intercultural competence, but that the relationship between the two is one of selection and accentuation.
Savicki, Victor; Cooley, Eric American identity in study abroad students: Contrasts, changes, correlates Journal of College Student Development, Vol. 52.
This article focuses on the cognitive level, particularly the students’ social identifications as American, in study abroad programs. Employing a new measure of this concept, the authors contrast the level, configuration and change of American identity in study abroad students compared to those students who remained at home to clarify how this specific form of social identification fits within the broader nomological net of concepts that impact both college student development and study abroad.
Tarrant, Michael Andrew A conceptual framework for exploring the role of studies abroad in nurturing global citizenship Journal of Studies in International Education, Vol. 14, 433 – 451
A conceptual framework, adapted from the Value-Belief-Norm theory, is proposed for understanding the role of studying abroad in nurturing global citizenship. The framework is oriented in concepts of justice, the environment, and civic obligations as key issues in the predictive validity of values, beliefs, and norms. The author argues the VBN can be applied to the design and delivery of short-term, faculty led study abroad programs to maximize learning and the nurturing of global citizenship, while also making it possible to quantify the link between learning outcomes and key facets of the international education experience.

2010

Allen, Heather Willis What shapes short-term study abroad experiences: A comparative case study of students’ motives and goals Journals of Studies in International Education, Vol 14, 452 – 470.
This comparative case study explored the motives and goals of two American students participating in short-term study abroad (SA). Findings, interpreted from an activity theory perspective, demonstrated that despite similar language-learning histories and demographic characteristics, the students were learning French and participating in SA for different reasons. Dissimilarities between their language-learning motives and goals for SA led to differences in their experiences using French and interacting with host families and, later, to shifts in goals and language-learning strategies. These findings offer support for a relational definition of the “context” of learning during SA wherein context is emergent from individuals’ language-learning motives and reasons for engaging in SA, goals for SA, and resulting actions. Practical implications of this study include the need for intervention in student learning during SA.
Brewer, Elizabeth; Cunningham, Kiran (Eds.) Integrating study abroad into the curriculum: Theory and practice across the disciplines Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing
Study abroad programs offer great potential to benefit students in an increasingly internationalized world and work place. Recently, there has been discussion about the benefits of diversifying study abroad, although non-traditional study abroad students may face many constraints not faced by their majority student peers. The purpose of this study was to further assess, through a survey and focus groups, the constraints on multicultural student participation in study abroad. The authors use the results of this study, along with those of the broader literature, to recommend strategies to increase multicultural student participation in study abroad.
Brux, Jacqueline Murray; Fry, Blake Multicultural students in study abroad: Their interests, their issues, and their constraints Journal of Studies in International Education, Vol. 14, 508 – 527
Study abroad programs offer great potential to benefit students in an increasingly internationalized world and work place. Recently, there has been discussion about the benefits of diversifying study abroad, although non-traditional study abroad students may face many constraints not faced by their majority student peers. The purpose of this study was to further assess, through a survey and focus groups, the constraints on multicultural student participation in study abroad. The authors use the results of this study, along with those of the broader literature, to recommend strategies to increase multicultural student participation in study abroad.
Carter, Duncan; Latz, Gil; Thorton, Patricia M. Through a new lens: Assessing international learning at Portland State University The Journal of General Education 59, 3 pp. 172-181
This article depicts the experiences and findings of Portland State University after participating in Lessons Learned in Assessing International Learning. The study was a three-year project developed by the American Council on Education and funded by the U.S. Department of Education’s Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education in order to assess international learning.  The article provides evaluations of the methods used in the study, suggesting that mixed-method assessments (both qualitative and quantitative) is an effective way to pursue assessments of students’ international experiences.
Cooper, Garth; Nui, Rui Assessing international learning: A mixed methodological approach to assessing curricular and extracurricular international experiences The Journal of General Education 59, 3 pp. 159-171
Researchers at the Michigan State University (MSU) participated in the American Council on Education’s Lessons Learned in Assessing International Learning, a multi-institutional study designed to evaluate the benefits of implementing mixed-method (quantitaive and qualitative) assessment of students’ international experiences. MSU differentiated its findings from other universities in the program by using Lev Vygotsky’s “Space Theory” as a theoretical frame.  Researchers evaluated the spatial elements of students’ experiences abroad, ranging from collective to individual spaces. Preliminary findings support the use of mixed-method assessment and suggest it could be applied successfully at other institutions.
Engle, Lilli; Martin, Patricia C. Alignment and Accountability in Education Abroad: A Handbook for the Effective Design and Implementation of Qualitative Assessment Based on Study Evaluations The Forum on Education Abroad
In the interest of encouraging varied and complementary assessment efforts, this handbook offers strategies for the development of meaningful qualitative assessment questionnaires to be completed by students during and/or after their term of study abroad. keywords: qualitative outcomes assessment
Foronda, Cynthia L. Associate degree nursing students’ thoughts, feelings, and experiences of short study abroad in a low-income country Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, Vol 71(4-B)
Educational research about nursing students studying abroad is limited but suggests positive outcomes. Prior research has focused on graduate or baccalaureate students in developed and less developed countries, thus, the experience of studying abroad in a low-income country for the associate degree student is unknown. The purpose of this study was to describe the thoughts, feelings, and experiences of associate degree nursing students who participated in a short study abroad course in a low-income country. Mezirow’s (1991) theory of transformative learning was applied to the findings. Three categories emerged from the analysis. Participants revealed thoughts of “constant comparisons,” feelings of an “emotional journey,” and they experienced “learning.”
Goel, Lakshmi; De Jong, Pieter; Shnusenberg, Oliver Toward a comprehensive framework of study abroad intentions and behaviors Journal of Teaching in International Business, Vol. 21, 248 – 265
Prompted by increasing participation rates, several studies that have investigated why U.S. students choose to study abroad. However, the literature on study abroad choices has been fragmented, with each study presenting an ad-hoc set of factors the author/s deem as important or that have been shown to be important in previous literature. However, no study to date has attempted to identify a theoretical framework that explains why these factors should be important in explaining the intention to participate in a study abroad program. In this study, we use the theoretical background of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and trait theory to unify the existing body of literature and arrive at a model that predicts study abroad intentions. We test this model by means of a survey administered in a U.S. university.
He, Ning; Chen, Rachel J.C. College students’ perceptions and attitudes toward the selection of study abroad programs International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Administration, Vol. 11, 347 – 359.
The main goal of this study is to understand the motivations and attitudes of students toward the selection of study abroad programs. Approximately 600 undergraduate students from a land-grant university in the Southeastern U.S. were randomly invited to participate. The results of this study will be useful for institutions that have an interest in promoting student exchange programs, and can assist study abroad program marketers in promoting positive images of host destinations and providing better services for both receiving and generating institutions.
Hornfeck, William; Jouny, Ismail The successful integration of study abroad and an engineering curriculum Transforming Engineering Education: Creating Interdisciplinary Skills for Complex Global Environment, 1 – 11
This paper describes the collaboration between a university in Bremen, Germany and the Engineering Division of a Liberal Arts and Engineering College  (Lafayette College) in Easton, Pennsylvania. Over the six years of the partnership, more than one hundred engineering undergraduates had a semester-long immersion in a foreign culture, completing a semester’s studies in their engineering major, traveling extensively, and living and working in an international setting. The structure, successes, and challenges experienced with the program are discussed, and student participants’ evaluative responses from are summarized.
Hummer, Justin F.; Pedersen, Eric. R.; Tehniat, Mirza; LaBrie, Joseph W. Factors associated with general and sexual alcohol-related consequences: An examination of college students while studying abroad Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, Vol. 47, 427 – 444
This study contributes to the scarce research on U.S. college students studying abroad by documenting general and sexual negative alcohol-related risks and factors associated with such risk. The manner of drinking (quantity vs. frequency), pre-departure expectations surrounding alcohol use while abroad, culture-related social anxiety, and perceived disparity between home and host cultures differentially predicted consequences abroad. The findings include important implications for student affairs professionals in developing study abroad-specific interventions and resources to maintain student well-being while abroad.
Kutner, Laurie Study-abroad programs as information producers: An expanding role for support of our students studying abroad Journal of Library Administration, 50 (7-8), 767-778
Though increasing numbers of students spend time studying abroad, there has been little discussion regarding the needs of study-abroad students as a distinct user group. The little research that has been done in this area focuses on support for study-abroad students as information users. This article expands the conversation to consider the librarian’s role in supporting study-abroad students as producers of valuable information, particularly as study-abroad programs expand to nontraditional locations and focus on project-based and service-learning activities of direct benefit to their host communities. A model for creating digital libraries that supports the work of study-abroad programs in Monteverde, Costa Rica, is presented. Through multi-institutional collaboration, use of graduate student interns, and digital library technology, information produced by study-abroad programs of relevance to both local communities and future researchers is now accessible. Options for wider future support for study-abroad students as information producers are considered.
Lantis, Jeffrey; DuPlaga, Jessica The global classroom: An essential guide to study abroad Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers
This book is aimed at students, professors, and study abroad professionals, but anyone who wants help in preparing for informed and culturally sensitive travel will benefit from its extensive resources. Both a primer for a holistic experience abroad and a practical guide to issues that arise in any travel setting, The Global Classroom is an essential travel companion.
McCallon, Melanie; Holmes, Bill Faculty-led 360: Guide to successful study abroad Charleston, IL: Agapy LLC
Guide directed at faculty who are developing study abroad programs they will lead. Includes chapters addressing learning goals and their assessment.
Meredith, Alan R. Acquiring cultural perceptions during study abroad: The Influence of Youth Associates Hispania, Vol. 93, 686 – 702
This article reviews definitions of culture posited by anthropologists and language educators and discusses problems related to the recent paradigm shift from “small ‘c’ and big ‘C,’” as classifications for culture, to the three “‘P”s of products, practices, and perspectives proposed by the Standards for Foreign Language Learning in the 21st Century (National Standards 2006). Drawing from Kramsch’s (1993) postulate of real culture (C1) versus perceived culture (C1′), the current study solicited responses to a questionnaire regarding the practices of Spaniards from two age groups (young and mature) and American students involved in a study abroad program in Spain. Data analyses reveal that perceptions of American Students most closely align with those of Young Spaniards. Implications point to the need for intervention and instruction to provide students with a broader perspective of Spain’s cultural practices.
Pedersen, Eric R.; Neighbors, Clayton; Larimer, Mary E., Lee, Christine M. Measuring sojourner adjustment among American students studying abroad International Journal of Intercultural Relations
The  study is designed to establish a brief multi-component measure of Sojourner Adjustment (the Sojourner Adjustment Measure; SAM) to be used in work with populations residing temporarily in foreign environments (e.g., international students, foreign aid workers). Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on a sample of 248 American study abroad college students, the authors established a 24-item measure of Sojourner Adjustment composed of four positive factors (social interaction with host nationals, cultural understanding and participation, language development and use, host culture identification) and two negative factors (social interaction with co-nationals, homesickness/feeling out of place). Preliminary convergent validity was examined through correlations with established measures of acculturation.
Presley, Adrien; Damron-Martinez, Datha; Zhang, Lin A study of business student choice to study abroad: A test of the theory of planned behavior Journal of Teaching in International Business, 21 (4), 227-247
Study abroad experiences are becoming increasingly common with business students. This study builds on previous research into the motivations of students to study abroad by using Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior as a theoretical basis for indentifying the factors which might influence intention to study abroad. A survey administered to 188 business students and subsequent analysis supported Ajzen’s theory that attitude, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms all were significant predictors of intention. This study also identified gender specific differences in the various factors.
Salisbury, Mark H.; Paulsen, Michael B. & Pascarella, Ernest T. To see the world or stay at home: Applying an integrated student choice model to explore the gender gap in the intent to study abroad Research in Higher Education, Vol. 51: 615-640
Although interest in study abroad has grown consistently in recent decades, study abroad professionals and higher education scholars have been unable to explain or rectify the long-standing gender gap in study abroad participation. This study applies an integrated model of the student-choice construct to explore differences between male and female intent to study abroad. Results indicate that, not only can various forms of social and cultural capital predict student decisions about curricular opportunities during college such as study abroad, but gender plays a substantial role in altering the ways in which those forms of capital shape student decisions differently.
Slimbach, Richard Becoming world wise: A guide to global learning Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing
Becoming World Wise offers an integrated approach to cross-cultural learning aimed at transforming our consciousness while also contributing to the flourishing of the communities that host us. While primarily intended for foreign study and service situations, the ideas are just as relevant to intercultural learning within domestic settings. In a “globalized” world, diverse cultures intermingle near and far, at home and abroad.
Sohoni, Deenesh; Petrovic, Misha Teaching a global sociology: Suggestions for globalizing the U.S. curriculum Teaching Sociology. Vol. 38, no. 4. 287-300
The purpose of this article is twofold: 1) to identify the multiple meanings of internationalizing or globalizing the classroom, and 2) to suggest teaching strategies relevant to the specific pedagogical goals of teaching a more globalized version of the discipline. Three sociology courses illustrate how a more systematic understanding of globalizing the curriculum can improve course design.
Stroud, April H. Who plans (not) to study abroad? An examination of U.S. student intent Journal of Studies in International Education, Vol. 14, 491 – 507
This study examined factors that may affect U.S. student participation in study abroad, including parental income and education, gender, race, intended major, attitudes about other cultures, and distance of college from home. Data were collected from a large, public northeastern university in the United States that participated in the 2007 Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP) survey, which provides information about incoming students’ backgrounds, academic and career expectations, personal goals, and opinions on a wide range of political and social issues.
 Tajes, Maria; Ortiz, Jamie Assessing study abroad programs: Application of the “SLEPT” framework through learning communities  The Journal of General Education 59, 10 pp. 17-41
In this article, the authors propose a comprehensive conceptual framework for exploring student learning outcomes for short-term study abroad. Researchers used the Social, Legal, Economic, Political, and Technological (SLEPT) framework to assess students’ understanding of the host country before departing and after returning. The researchers understand the difficulties of exposing students to each element of SLEPT in a short-term abroad program. However, they suggest that incorporating mentoring or language immersion can help create active learning communities that enhance students’ learning while abroad. Using a five-week program in Spain as a case study, the authors found that participation in a study abroad program fostered global literacy and critical analysis of global issues when the SLEPT framework was fulfilled.

2009

Amuzie, Grace Lee; Paula Winke Changes in language learning beliefs as a result of study abroad System, Vol. 37 (3) 366-379
Learner beliefs have traditionally been considered stable and static. According to recent research, however, they are dynamic and variable. Under this theory, the current study explores the effects of study abroad on beliefs. This study supports the view that beliefs are dynamic, socially constructed, and responsive to context.
Blumenthal, Peggy; Gutierrez, Robert Meeting America’s global education problem: An IIE study abroad capacity research initiative IIE Study Abraod White Paper Series  Issue Number 6
With global interconnectedness continuing to increase, study abroad has become an increasingly important aspect of higher education. Yet, only a minoriy of students study abroad. The Institute of International Education seeks to address this issue, creating innovative ways of expanding abroad opportunities to greater number of student. The authors argues that the expansion of study abroad capacities should be based on objective standards found beneficial in assessment studies.
Braskamp, Larry A.; Braskamp, David C.; Merrill, Kelly Assessing progress in global learning and development of students with education abroad experiences Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Vol. 18, 101-118
This study examines progress in global learning and development of students with education abroad experiences and examines the question, “Do students change their self reports on cognitive, intrapersonal, and interpersonal domains of global learning and development from the beginning to the end of their semester-long education abroad?” A pre-test/post-test design was selected to measure changes in students’ global perspective over the period of one semester, the length of the education abroad experiences of students participating in this study. Students progressed in all three domains of global learning and development over the education abroad experience. Based on their findings, the authors conclude that while students did change on five of the six dimensions of holistic student development, they progress more on some dimensions than in others.
Deardorff, Darla (Ed.) The SAGE handbook of intercultural competence Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications
The SAGE Handbook of Intercultural Competence brings together in one volume the leading experts and scholars from a variety of fields from around the world who do work in intercultural competence (defined as appropriate and effective communication, as well as behavior, in intercultural situations). The Handbook examines the skills, attitudes, and knowledge needed in the face of globalization.  The final six chapters of the volume discuss research and assessment in intercultural competence.
Doyle, Dennis Holistic assessment and the study abroad experience Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Vol. 18, 143-157.
As the popularity for study abroad programs grows, so does the call for developing assessment tools which more comprehensively measure student growth and development. Anecdotal evidence of the life-changing nature of studying abroad is no longer sufficient to effectively argue its overall value to a student’s educational experience. Academic institutions need to implement holistic assessment instruments which not only take into account a wider range of factors shaping the student’s learning experience but also adopt qualitative and quantitative measurement strategies.This article reports the findings of one study that employs both qualitative and quantitative methods in a holistic assessment strategy. The collaboration of inventory data and in-depth personal interviews reveals a more complete understanding of student movements toward cultural maturity along cognitive, intrapersonal, and interpersonal dimensions.
Forray, Jeanie Mannheimer; Woodilla, Jill. Developing worldview as a learning objective: A rubric for assessment of international travel Journal of International Business Education, 2009, Vol. 4, 251-268.
This paper presents the concept of worldview and its relevance to business programs, and offers an assessment rubric for evaluating the extent to which travel/study courses used to internationalize the business curriculum are successful at developing students’ worldview. Results from a pilot application of the rubric for program-related assessment using papers from three “international practicum” experiences are presented, and we note ways in which student essays reflect development of worldview as a learning outcome of the experience.
Doyle, Stephanie; Gendall, Philip; Meyer, Luanna H.; Hoel, Janet; Tait, Carolyn, McKenzie, Lynanne; & Loorparg, Avatar An investigation of factors associated with student participation in study abroad Journal of Studies in International Education 14, 5 pp. 471-490
This multimethod study employed data from student surveys, tertiary institution case studies, and interviews with key stakeholders to identify factors that inhibited or promoted participation in international exchange programs among New Zealand students. These factors include the development of early understanding of the benefits of studying abroad; on-going support to students; social, cultural, and linguistic capabilities; and how effectively overseas study was integrated into degree programs. Implications of these findings for exchange programs in general are discussed in the context of future strategic development of expanded, more diverse opportunities for study overseas.
Hendershot, Karen; Sperandio, Jill Study abroad and development of global citizen identity and cosmopolitan ideals in undergraduates Current Issues in Comparative Education, Vol. 12, 45 -55
This paper reports selected results from a broader study which focused on determining students’ perceptions of the development of their global citizen identity within the context of an undergraduate global citizenship program, and which program aspects the students believed contributed to this growth. Findings suggest that experiences with other cultures and places gained through study abroad organized by the program were perceived as being the most important elements in developing students’ global citizen identities and practice of cosmopolitan ideals.
Johns, Audra; Thompson, Cheryl W. Developing cultural sensitivity through study abroad Home Health Care Management Practice, Vol. 22, 344-348
Study abroad experiences, as a strategy to develop cultural sensitivity, are increasingly popular in nursing education. At a college where resources for developing study abroad were limited, establishing a partnership with an organization experienced in sending medical teams abroad was a means by which a successful study abroad was integrated into a community health nursing course. This collaborative relationship provided the course faculty the opportunity to focus on development of the cultural learning, while the partnering organization coordinated trip logistics.
Kinginger, Celeste American students abroad: Negotiation of difference? Language Teaching, Vol. 43, 216 – 227
This paper considers the ways in which American students’ active engagement in local host communities abroad is at risk. Constraining forces include the new demographics of American study abroad, prejudicial attitudes toward international education and sheltered program designs, a research enterprise committed to primarily representing the perspectives of students, and the influence of globalization on communicative practice and habits of thought. To counter these influences, the elements of an activist stance are proposed.
Kinginger, Celeste Language learning and study abroad: A critical reading of research New York: Palgrave Macmillan
Study abroad is often seen as a crucial dimension of language learning — developing communicative proficiency, language awareness, and intercultural competence. The author provides an overview and assessment of research on language learning in study abroad settings, reviewing the advantages and constraints of perspectives adopted in this research
Lewin, Ross (Ed.) The handbook of practice and research in study abroad: Higher education and the quest for global citizenship New York: Routledge
This volume surveys the field of study abroad, with each chapter presenting a critical assessment of research, theory and practice. Questions addressed include: What do we mean by global citizenship and global competence? What are the philosophical, pedagogical and practical challenges facing institutions as they endeavor to create global citizens? How are study abroad and global citizenship compatible with the role of the academy? What are the institutional challenges to study abroad, including those related to ethics, infrastructure, finances, accessibility, and quality control? Which study abroad programs can be called successful?
Lord, Gillian Second-language awareness and development during study abroad: A case study Hispania, Vol. 92, 127 – 141
This study contributes to ongoing investigations of what linguistic gains are feasible in a second language (L2) during study abroad(SA). Through case-study methodology, one participant’s written production is analyzed in detail to investigate the processes of SA and L2 acquisition. The participant wrote weekly journal entries in Spanish during the year spent studying in Spain. Journals were coded for indicators of written fluency and accuracy, error types, and recurring language-related themes. Findings indicate improved accuracy over the year, but less change in terms of fluency. However, no single error type predominated during the study, suggesting that there is substantial variability to address in SA studies. The participant was linguistically and culturally aware of her progress at times, although not always cognizant of her errors.
Loroz, Peggy Sue Teaching marketing in a study abroad program: Learning and assessment in an internationalized principles of marketing course Marketing Education Review, Vol. 19 Issue 3, 3-16.
Study abroad programs present opportunities for instructors to utilize the international venue to broaden students’ perspectives on business and marketing. Simultaneously, study abroad instructors must ensure that students attain the same level of core material mastery as those who remain at their home universities. This paper draws upon the author’s experience to offer suggestions and resources for internationalizing a Principles of Marketing study abroad course. Included are ways to connect core concepts to the international setting as well as assignments to assess course learning objectives. Student evaluations of their learning experiences provide indirect measures of the efficacy of these suggestions.
McKeown, Joshua S. The first time effect: The impact of study abroad on college student intellectual development Albany, NY: SUNY Press
The author moves beyond the acknowledged cultural and linguistic benefits to focus on how it promotes intellectual growth in participating students. Students who have not had meaningful international exposure seem to benefit most from studying abroad.
McLeod, Mark; Wainwright, Philip Researching the study abroad experience Journal of Studies in International Education, Vol. 13: 66-71
The authors propose a paradigm for rigorous scientific assessment of study abroad programs, with the focus being on how study abroad experiences affect psychological constructs as opposed to looking solely at study-abroad-related outcomes. Social learning theory is used as a possible theoretical basis for making testable hypotheses and guiding potential research projects.
Miller, Kari Knutson; Gonzalez, Amber M. Service learning in domestic and international settings College Student Journal, June 2009, Vol. 43, Issue 2, 527-536.
This paper examines pre-service teacher outcomes associated with service learning in domestic and international settings. One group of upper-division undergraduate level pre-service teachers participated in supervised experiences in domestic settings. A second group of upper-division undergraduate level pre-service teachers participated in supervised experiences in Shanghai, China. Program evaluation and participant outcomes are reported here. Participant outcomes examined include civic engagement, career goal clarification, and cultural competencies.
Paige, Michael R.; Fry, Gerald W.; Stallman, Elizabeth M.; Josic, Jasmina; Jon, Jae-Eun Study abroad for global engagement: The long-term impact of mobility experiences Intercultural Education, Vol 20, Suppl. Nos. S1-2, S29-44
This study looks at the degree to which 1) participants in U.S. higher education study abroad programs are globally engaged post study abroad and 2) they attribute this engagement to having studied abroad. The authors conducted a retrospective tracer study of alumni of U.S. college and university study abroad programs covering approximately 50 years, from 1960 to 2005.
Penn, Everette P.; Tanner, Jennifer Black students and international education: An assessment Journal of Black Studies, Vol 40(2), 266-282
Black students participate in international education or study abroad experiences far less than other college students. The reasons, as stated in previous literature, include choice of major, attrition rates, lower levels of social economic affluence, and the lack of encouragement and support. These conclusions were tested with a sample of Black high school graduates enrolled in a residential, summer college-preparatory program. Results contradicted previous findings and led to the creation of a model to increase Black students’ participation in international education through a service learning pedagogy using short, intensive study abroad experiences
Pérez-Vidal, Carmen; Juan-Garau, Maria The effect of study abroad (sa) on written performance EUROSLA Yearbook, Vol. 9: 269-295
Research on the effects of Study Abroad (SA) periods on learners’ linguistic progress has tended to focus on the development of oral skills rather than writing skills. The subjects in the present study were 37 advanced level non-native (NNSs) university students of English on a SA programme. Significant differences were found between NSs and NNSs, although not in all domains. The results allow us to identify the students who benefit most from the SA and to examine the factors which seem to characterize them.
Phillion, J., Malewiski, E., Sharma, S., & Wang, Y. Reimagining the curriculum:  Future teachers and study abroad Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 18, 323-339.
Findings are reported from pre- and post-testing of nearly 1,300 students in academic years 2003-04 and 2004-05 on the relationship between intercultural learning, language learning, and study abroad.  Those surveyed were studying on 61 programs abroad or on three home campuses.  Data suggest that 1) study abroad students make greater gains in intercultural and language acquisition than students who remain on the home campus, and that female study abroad students advance more than their male counterparts, 2)  Proactive learning interventions during study abroad correlate with greater learning gains, and 3)  gains in target language oral proficiency are related to intercultural development, if indirectly.
Pitts, Margaret J. Identity and the role of expectations, stress, and talk in short-term student sojourners: An application of the integrative theory of communication and cross-cultural adaptation International Journal of Intercultural Relations. Vol. 33. 450-462
Expectation gaps are one contributor to adjustment stress. Findings reported here are the result of a fifteen month ethnographic investigation into the communication, adjustment, and identity patterns of U.S. sojourners abroad. The investigation extends and offers emperical evidence for Y.Y. Kim’s integrative theory of communication and cross-cultural adaptation. Within that context, a descriptive model of expectations, talk, and identity in the short-term academic sojourn is proposed. The investigation reveals that within their co-national network, sojourners are able to refine and create new expectations for study abroad through everyday talk. This process reduces expectation gaps enabling sojourners to adjust over time and allowing for the development of a more nuanced cultural identity.
Salisbury, Mark H.; Umbach; Paul D.; Paulsen, Michael B.; Pascarella, Ernest T. Going global: Understanding the choice process of the intent to study abroad Research in Higher Education, Vol. 50: 119-143
This study applies an integrated model of college choice to better describe students who do and do not intend to study abroad. Although internationalization through study abroad is widely touted as a preferred means of developing globally competent college graduates, very little is known about the factors that influence students’ predisposition to study abroad. This research explores the impact of financial, human, social, and cultural capital on students’ intent to study abroad.
Schauer, Gila A. Interlanguage pragmatic development: The study abroad context New York: Continuum
Schauer’s work is the first book-length study to examine the development of pragmatic language skills during study abroad.  Her study focused on German learners of English in Britain, and at the extent to which, over the course of a study abroad year, they were able to acquire, comprehend, and produce contextually appropriate “request utterances,” as compared to native English speakers and German students studying English in their home country.  Request utterances were chosen as learners can not avoid making them frequently and in different contexts, they require linguistic expertise on the part of the learner, and they differ cross-linguistically.
Vande Berg, Michael Intervening in student learning abroad: A research‐based inquiry Intercultural Education, 20,  Supplement 1, S15-S27
This paper summarizes the major conclusions of a four‐year study designed to measure the intercultural and second language learning of more than 1300 US undergraduates enrolled at 61 programs abroad. Focusing on the central research question – whether US students learn effectively when left to their own devices while abroad, or whether students perform better when educators proactively intervene  in their learning – the paper identifies a series of program design elements and learner characteristics that are significantly associated with gains in intercultural learning abroad. The Georgetown Consortium study provides significant evidence that most students benefit through enrolling in programs abroad that are intentionally designed to promote their intercultural learning (that is, programs that feature key design features that are strongly associated with student learning). In documenting important gender‐based learning differences (as measured by the pre‐ and post‐test Intercultural Development Inventory, the study’s male students made no more progress in their intercultural learning than did control students at campuses back in the US, while female students did show significant gains), the study also argues that focusing intentionally on learning abroad is especially important for male students.
Vande Berg, Michael; Paige, R. Michael; Connor-Linton, Jeffrey The Georgetown consortium project: Interventions for student learning abroad Frontiers: Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Vol. 18: 1-75
Findings are reported from pre- and post-testing of nearly 1,300 students in academic years 2003-04 and 2004-05 on the relationship between intercultural learning, language learning, and study abroad.  Those surveyed were studying on 61 programs abroad or on three home campuses.  Data suggest that 1) study abroad students make greater gains in intercultural and language acquisition than students who remain on the home campus, and that female study abroad students advance more than their male counterparts, 2)  Proactive learning interventions during study abroad correlate with greater learning gains, and 3)  gains in target language oral proficiency are related to intercultural development, if indirectly.
Williams, Tracy Rundstrom The reflective model of intercultural competency: A multidimensional, qualitative approach to study abroad assessment Frontiers:  Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Vol. 18: 289-306
The author developed learning outcomes for a study abroad program, made students aware of these during and after the program, and embedded assessment of them in the program design.  Results from implementation of this “Reflective Model of Intercultural Competence” indicate that embedded qualitative and multi-dimensional data collection reveals rich information about learning outcomes while also enabling students to reflect on and recognize their intercultural learning.

2008

Braskamp, Larry A. Developing global citizens Journal of College and Character, Vol.10
“Developing global citizens” is the goal of colleges today but does this phase have any meaning? College students who view themselves as global citizens also express a complex view of knowing, are committed to the common good, and desire to relate to others unlike them. Education abroad is one effective pathway to develop students with a global perspective, but we should not limit our perspective to cultural differences that are only associated with nations and countries. We instead need to understand and respect justice, equity, fairness, and equal opportunities as virtues and values that are important goals and ends of education.
Cubillos, Jorge H.; Chieffo, Lisa & Fan, Chunbo The impact of short-term study abroad programs on l2 listening comprehension skills Foreign Language Annals, Vol. 41
The impacts of a 5-week intermediate Spanish study abroad course on listening comprehension are compared with the results of a similar campus-based course. Gains in listening comprehension were similar in both courses.  However, there were differences in the ways in which the students approached listening tasks.  The study abroad primarily using top-down and social listening strategies while the on-campus students favored bottom-up strategies. The study abroad students had greater confidence in their listening skills, and higher-proficiency students made greater gains than those who remained on campus.
Dekaney, Elisa M. Students’ pre-departure expectations and post-sojourn observations in a short-term international program abroad on the culture, music, and art of Brazil  International Education 37 (2) Retrieved from http://trace.tennesee.edu/internationaleducation/vol37/iss2/4
This study analyzed pre-departure essays of participants in a 10-day study abroad course; the prompt for the essay was how they might benefit from their experiences in Brazil.  The results of this analysis were compared with an analysis of post-sojourn academic journals.  The author concludes that short-term study abroad can enhance students’ world view and increase their openness to diversity, and that both expectations about the experience and the learning from the experience can be enhanced through pre-departure learning activities.
Dolby, Nadine Global citizenship and study abroad:  A comparative study of American and Australian undergraduates Frontiers:  The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Vol. XVII (Fall): 51-67
This article reports on a study involving 22 American undergraduates studying abroad in Australia and 15 Australian students studying abroad in the U.S.  All were interviewed before and after their study abroad, and had email contact with the researcher while abroad. The goal was to understand how the students negotiated their national identity while abroad and the degree to which they identified as global citizens. The American students engaged in much more critical self-reflection about their American identity, but had less global awareness and political knowledge than the Australian students, who were better able to see themselves as global citizens and did not have an “Australian-centric” view of the world.  The author argues that concepts such as “global citizenship’ need to “be interrogated and studied both conceptually and as lived experiences.”
Edwards, Jane Study at home after study abroad Hellsten, M. & Reid, A. (Eds.), Researching International Pedagogies:  Sustainable Practice for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, Springer, 115-128
While very much concerned with the study abroad experience itself, international education administrators in the American community often relegate post-study abroad integration to extracurricular zones. The author asks if instead the curriculum should be shaped to recognize what students learned abroad, whether this involved new insights, skills, or knowledge, and suggests that returning students become actors in helping others develop global interests.
Elola, Idoia;Oskoz, Ana Blogging: Fostering intercultural competence development in foreign language and study abroad contexts Foreign Language Annals, Fall 2008, Vol. 41, Issue 3, 454-477
An essential instructional goal in foreign language education is the enhancement of students’ intercultural competence. This article reports on a study that examined how intercultural competence developed between study abroad and at home students (in Spain and the United States, respectively) who used blogs as a mediating tool over the course of a semester. The data, blogs and two questionnaires, were analyzed by applying Byram’s (2000) assessment guidelines. The results showed that: (1) both study abroad and foreign language learners presented instances of intercultural competence as described in Byram’s guidelines, with each group reflecting the unique characteristics of its context, and (2) blog interactions had a positive affect on the development of both groups’ intercultural competence.
Garver, Michael S.; Divine, Richard L. Conjoint analysis of study abroad preferences: Key attributes, segments and implications for increasing student participation Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 17 ( 2) 189-215
An adaptive conjoint analysis was performed on the study abroad preferences of a sample of undergraduate college students. The results indicate that trip location, cost, and time spent abroad are the three most important determinants of student preference for study abroad optioins. The analysis also uncovered four different study abroad need-based segments. In order to increase study abroad participation rates it is recommended that universities determine which of these segments they want to target, and then develop a set of study abroad offerings and communication strategies custom designed to address the particular needs of each targeted segment. Recommendations on how to market to each segment are provided.
Goode, Matthew L. The role of faculty study abroad directors: A case study Frontiers:  Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Vol. 15, 149 – 172
This study examines the FD role and focuses on how intercultural development, frequently named as one of the primary goals of study abroad programs, informs this role. The overarching purpose of this study was to explore the role of study abroad faculty directors at one undergraduate, liberal arts college in the United States [referred to in this article as “North American College” (NAC)]–focusing, in particular, on the intercultural dimension of the role. In this study, answers were sought to the following research questions: (1) How do study abroad faculty directors conceptualize their role?; (2) How well do faculty’s formal and informal experiences prepare them to serve as study abroad faculty directors?; (3) What degree of intercultural development do the study abroad faculty directors at “North American College” have?; and (4) How do study abroad faculty directors conceptualize their role in the intercultural development of their study abroad students?
Harrison, J. Kline; Voelker, Elizabeth Two personality variables and the cross-cultural adjustment of study abroad students Frontiers:  The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Vol. XVII (Fall): 69-87
This article reports findings from a study examining the impact of emotional intelligence (EI) and entrepreneurial attitude orientation (EAO) on study abroad students’ adjustment to their host cultures. 191 students participated in the study.  The study showed that three subdimensions of  EI strongly relate to general adjustment to a host culture, with a fourth subdimension influential.  However, only one subdimension of EAO related to better interaction adjustment.  Further, while students with a higher EAO had a stronger interacting adjustment that those with lower EAO, there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of general cultural adjustment.
Heitmann, George The opportunity cost of study abroad programs: An economics-based analysis Frontiers:  Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Vol. 15, 57 – 66
This paper’s analysis of study abroad costs will be especially useful to college and program administrators who have responsibility for budget, program size, and program management decisions. The purpose of this analysis is, first, to summarize briefly some standard study abroad practices, and indicate their revenue and cost implications. The second purpose is to discuss the opportunity cost of study abroad. The analysis presented therein will be familiar to economists, but will likely be novel to many college and study abroad administrators. It will demonstrate with a numerical example why the standard interpretation of study abroad costs is wrong, and provide an economic approach whereby costs can be correctly assessed.
Jackson, Jane Language, identity and study abroad: Sociocultural perspectives London, U.K.: Equinox
The author places the lived experiences of study abroad language learners within poststructuralist and sociocultural theory in order to examine the interactions among language learning, identity construction and reconstruction, and the development of intercultural communication skills and intercultural identity.  The multi-disciplinary theoretical approach in combination with an ethnographic study of participants in a specific short-term study abroad program suggest that the development of language and intercultural communication skills, along with an intercultural self, are influenced not only by the sociocultural and linguistic study abroad environment but by such factors as the student’s response to the study abroad environment(s), the degree to which the student is invested and active in learning, the receptivity of the host culture, and the distance among cultures.
Jessup-Anger, Jody E. Gender observations and study abroad: How students reconcile cross-culture differences related to gender Journal of College Student Development, Vol. 49, 360-373
The purpose of the  study was to gain a better understanding of how gender was observed by a group of students participating in a 3­-week study abroad program in Australia and New Zealand in May 2006n on “Food, Environment and Social Systems.” The author examined the messages students received about gender in Australia and New Zealand, whether the students were cognizant of these messages, and how they made meaning of the messages in light of their own gender identity.
Hoff, Joseph; Paige, R. Michael A strategies-based approach to culture and language learning in education abroad programming Frontiers:  The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Vol. XVII (Fall): 89-106
This study examined the value to study abroad professionals of the three-part publication Maximizing Study Abroad (Paige, Cohen, Kappler, Chi, & Lassegard, 2002).  (One guide is for professionals, another for students, with a third focused on classroom learning.) IThirteen education abroad professionals participated in the study. Findings indicate that the Program Professionals’ Guide presented the study participants with new and different ways to teach culture and language learning strategies to their students. The Guide also helped them better understand the role of programming in study abroad.  However, it was sometimes challenging to integrate materials from the guide into programming.  As well, some study participants felt more guidance on how to use the guides with different kinds of study abroad students would be helpful, as well as training on how to integrate the three different guides.
Lenz, William; Wister, Joseph Short-term abroad with long-term benefits International Educator, Vol. 17, 84 -87
This article examines the long-term benefits from Chatham University’s subsidized study/volunteer program for students, most of whom are first-generation college students and come from humble backgrounds.
Malmgren, Jodi; Galvin, James Effects of study abroad participation on student graduation rates: A study of three incoming freshman cohorts at the University of Minnesota – Twin Cities National Academic Advising Association Journal, Vol. 28, 29 -42
Study abroad participation is increasing, national and institutional resources are being devoted to internationalization, and assessment stresses the importance of study abroad learning outcomes. Recognizing the confluence of these influences, the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, gathered data on graduation rates of study abroad participants, compared them to those of non-participants, and looked at patterns that emerged among subsets of the students, such as students of color and students enrolled in particular colleges. Study abroad participation did not appear to negatively affect graduation rates, and was even highly correlated with robust graduation rates among under prepared at-risk undergraduates as well as students of color.
Norris, Emily Muhajeri; Gillespie, Joan How study abroad shapes global careers: Evidence from the United States Journal of Studies in International Education, Vol. 13, 382-397
This article presents findings on how study abroad shapes careers.  Data for the study came from a survey conducted by the Institute for the International Education of Students (IES) of 17,000 participants its programs between 1950 and 1999. Study abroad had a significant career impact for the majority of respondents. However, career impact and continued use of foreign language were much greater for alumni who worked internationally than for those who did not. Study abroad for a full year, host university course enrollment, internship participation, and host family living arrangements are all program factors that correlate strongly with future international work.
Norris, Emily Muhajeri; Steinberg, Michael Does language matter?  The impact of language instruction on study abroad outcomes Frontiers:  The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Vol. XVII (Fall): 107-131
This study looks at the effect of language of instruction on the longitudinal outcomes of study abroad and draws on data collected in a survey involving 50 years of alumni of programs sponsored by the study abroad provider IES. The findings indicate that students whose instruction abroad was delivered solely in the target language were more likely to continue to use the language, including in the workplace.  Study abroad also reinforced these students commitment to language learning and was more likely to lead them into international careers that was true for students who studied in English alone or in the target language and English.  However, the study also concludes that study abroad had life-long impacts, no matter the language(s) of instruction.
Orahood, Tammy; Woolf, Jennie; Kruze, Larisa Study abroad and career paths of business students Frontiers:  The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Vol. XVII (Fall): 133-141
This article reports on findings from a study of Kelly School of Business graduates of Indiana University to determine the impact of international experience on career paths.  Career paths of alumni who had studied abroad were compared with those of alumni who had not.  The alumni were 5 and 10 years past their undergraduate studies. 417 American alumni participated in the survey.  Findings contradicted the researchers’ expectations:  while business students who had studied abroad had greater interest in working for companies with an international dimension, such positions were more likely to be held by alumni who had not studied abroad. Study abroad is more likely to impact business students’ personal growth and development than their careers and advisors should, therefore, emphasize the transferable life skills study abroad brings rather than study abroad’s potential to lead to careers with an international dimension.
Paus, Eva; Robinson, Michael Increasing study abroad participation:  The faculty make a difference Frontiers:  The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Vol. XVII (Fall): 33-49
This study merged admissions data for 2,335 Mount Holyoke College students with data on study abroad participation and majors to look at student background, risk-aversion, and college-related factors.  To generate data on encouragement for study abroad (from friends, family, and faculty members), the researchers added questions to the senior survey administered to the class of 2007. The findings show that for these students, race and first-generation status did not influence study abroad participation, and the effect of family income was small.  They also found that students who had traveled further to attend Mount Holyoke were more likely to study abroad.  Students with higher GPAs were more likely to study abroad, while concerns about fulfilling major requirements were cites some students as reasons for not studying abroad.  Athletics played no role. Based on the study, the researchers conclude that active encouragement by faculty members is the most important factor in determining whether students study abroad.
Relyea, Clint; Cocchiara, Faye K.; Studdard, Nareatha, The effect of perceived value in the decision to participate in study abroad programs Journal of Teaching in International Business, Vol. 19, 346-361
This study examines university students’ motivations for participating in a study abroad program. Specifically, the study seeks to understand the conditions in which students with a high risk propensity will be more likely to participate in an international experience. Further, it investigates how perceived career value will moderate this relationship. Finding support for both hypotheses, the authors suggest that universities need to do a better job to ensure that students understand that study abroad programs are more than just a chance to travel and have a good time. Increased cultural intelligence is a necessity for managers in today’s global environment and enhances students’ professional marketability.
Savicki, Victor (Ed.) Developing intercultural competence and transformation: Theory, research, and application in international education Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing
This book provides study abroad educators with a theoretical framework and examples of practice to craft more meaningful activities that will make a long-term difference in the quality of student experiences, and set the stage for transformative change. Following an introductory chapter on “Designing Transformation in International Education, chapters focus on theories related to intercultural growth and transformation, research, and application in courses and programs.
Stearns, Peter N. Educating global citizens in colleges and universities: Challenges and opportunities New York: Routledge
This book provides distinctive analysis of the full range of expressions in global education at a crucial time, when international competition rises, tensions with American foreign policy both complicate and motivate new activity, and a variety of innovations are taking shape. Citing best practices at a variety of institutions, the book provides practical coverage and guidance in the major aspects of global education (curriculum, study abroad, international students, collaborations and branch campuses, management).  A final chapter discusses the assessment of global citizenship.
Trooboff, Stevan; Vande Berg, Michael; Rayman, Jack Employer attitudes toward study abroad Frontiers:  Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Vol. 15: 17 -33
The authors designed and carried out a research study to explore employers’ attitudes toward study abroad. The study’s results provide significant support for the belief that employers value study abroad in hiring recent college and university graduates–particularly certain classes of employers. The data both enriches one’s understanding of employer attitudes about study abroad and points out several steps that can be taken to strengthen the connection between student learning abroad and enhanced possibilities for gainful employment following graduation. The data strongly suggests that human resource professionals and others responsible for hiring employees are in fact more likely to value study abroad than are CEOs and presidents.
Wiers – Jenssen, Jannecke Does higher education attained abroad lead to international jobs? Journal of Studies in International Education, Vol. 12, 101 – 130
This article investigates the early career of graduates who have studied abroad (mobile students) compared to graduates who have not (nonmobile students) to determine the extent to which mobile students get jobs with international assignments compared to nonmobile students. Results show that mobile students—particularly those who graduated abroad— more often than nonmobile students search for and gain work experience abroad, but that the vast majority of mobile students return from abroad after graduation. In the domestic labour market, mobile students hold jobs with more international assignments than nonmobile students.
Woolf, Michael Not serious stuff? Service-learning in context:  An International Perspective Frontiers:  The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Vol. XVII (Fall): 21-32
The author argues that service learning integrated into study abroad can enable students to cross the border between their classrooms and their host environments as well as the border between themselves and local residents. However, for service learning to be accepted as an educational activity within study abroad, learning objectives must be identified for it that educators will recognize as academic.
Yu Lu; Hsu, Chia-Fang (Sandy) Willingness to communicate in intercultural interactions between Chinese and Americans Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, Vol. 37: 75-88
This study investigated the differences in willingness to communicate (WTC) between Americans and Chinese living in China and the United States, and the factors affecting
WTC between these two nationalities. A battery of questionnaires was administered to 47 American and 54 Chinese college students in China, and 51 American and 42
Chinese college students in the US. Overall Americans were found to be more willing to communicate with Chinese than were Chinese with Americans. Participants living
abroad reported higher levels of WTC than those living in their home country. Among Chinese, WTC was positively related to self-perceived communication competence,language competence, immersion time and motivation being positively correlated and negatively associated with CA.

2007

 

Bolen, Mell C. (Ed.) A guide to outcomes assessment in education abroad Carlisle, PA: The Forum on Education Abroad
The field of education abroad is always seeking better data about learning outcomes to improve programs and advocate for the value of education abroad. To support this work, the Forum has published a Guide to Outcomes Assessment in Education Abroad which debuted at the Forum Conference in Austin, Texas. Edited by Mell C. Bolen,, this essential publication provides tools for implementing outcomes assessment as a part of education abroad programming.
Christofi, Victoria; Thompson, Charles L. You cannot go home again: A phenomenological investigation of returning to the sojourn country after study abroad Journal of Counseling and Development, Vol. 85, Issue 1, 53-63
The goal of this study was to describe the structure of the experience of individuals who returned home after studying abroad, became disillusioned with their home country, and returned to their sojourn country. Phenomenological interviews were conducted with participants. The emerging bipolar themes of conflict/peace, reality/idealization, freedom/restriction, changing/static, and comfort/discomfort were grounded in the theme of cultural comparison. Implications for counseling those who study abroad are included.
Fuller, Thomas L. Study abroad experiences and intercultural sensitivity among graduate theological students: A preliminary and exploratory investigation Christian Higher Education, 6 (4), 321-332
The study reported in this paper investigated the impact of study abroad experiences on graduate theological student intercultural sensitivity and the role that pedagogical approaches play in the development of intercultural sensitivity. It is widely held that study abroad contributes to student development of intercultural sensitivity but to what extent? Does a student who studies abroad have a distinct developmental advantage over one who does not? Are there specific factors, such as pedagogy, that serve to aid or hinder that development? Finding answers to these questions holds promise for determining more accurately how useful study abroad is for certain learning outcomes, as well as for making meaningful improvements to international study programs.
 Magnan, Sally Sieloff; Back, Michelle  Social interaction and linguistic gain during study abroad  Foreign Language Annals, Vol. 40
This study investigates the role of social interaction in language learning among study abroad students in France. Using the ACTFL Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI), the Can-Do self-assessment scale, a revised version of the Language Contact Profile, and pre-and post-departure questionnaires, gains in oral proficiency are examined as related to language contact in the study abroad environment. The research shows that language gain is possible during a semester-long study abroad program. However, differences in living situation and contact with authentic media do not differentiate students who improve from those who do not.
Messer, Dolores; Wolter, Stefan C.  Are student exchange programs worth it?  Higher Education, Vol. 65: 647-663
Survey of Swiss university graduates (classes of 1999 and 2001).  Participation in exchanges depends significantly on the socio-economic background of students. Participation is associated with higher starting salaries and higher likelihood of further education, but the relationship of these to exchange participation is not causal.
Noda, Mari Performed culture: Cataloging culture gains during study abroad Japanese Language and Literature, Vol. 41: 297-314
Cultural gains in study abroad involve restructuring of one’s memory. Cultural performance is learned through lived experience. Greater cultural learning takes place in Japan when performances are catalogued using multi-dimensional concepts (sagas, cases, themes)
Parker, Barbara; Dautoff, Dianne Altman Service-Learning and Study Abroad: Synergistic Learning Opportunities Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, Spring, 40-53
International service-learning (SL) and study abroad (SA) courses are increasingly part of university curricula. A literature review shows these two types of experiential learning share similarities that offer potential synergies for the growing numbers of both types of experiences. This possibility is explored further by analyzing results from a business school course that combined SL and SA activities. Student outcomes were measured at two points: immediately after course completion and four years later to explore how SA and SL activities contributed to content, affective, and connective learning. The results suggest that while both SL and SA activities stimulate content and affective learning, connective learning more frequently results from SL activities. The implications for practice and future research are explored.
Patron, Marie-Claire Culture and identity in study abroad contexts Pieterlen, Switzerland: Peter Lang Publishing
This book examines the effects of a study abroad experience in Australia on French students’ culture and identity and the impact of these effects on their readjustment to their home culture. Issues of perceived cultural proximity between France and Australia, a relative lack of knowledge of Australia before the the study abroad, and distance all influenced the students’ experiences. Long-term and cross-sectional studies focusing on culture shock, reverse culture shock and cultural identity issues were used to investigate the cyclical journey of French study abroad students as well as the impact of the acculturation and repatriation processes and language experiences on their perceptions of cultural identity.
Streitwieser, Bernhard; Leephaibul, Robin Enhancing the study abroad experience through independent research in Germany Die Unterrichtspraxis / Teaching German, Vol. 40: 164-170
Briefly details the development of undergraduate research as a national priority and then lays out the rationale, structure, and outcomes of Northeastern University’s Study Abroad Research Program (SARP), including its impact on students in the German Department.
Sutton, Richard C.; Miller, Ann N.; Rubin, Donald L. Research design in assessing learning outcomes of education abroad programs Bolen, Mell (Ed.), A guide to outcomes assessment in education abroad.  Forum on Education Abroad.
Discussion of the merits and challenges of different approaches to research design in education abroad and particular areas of inquiry with reference to specific studies.
Vande Berg, Michael Intervening in the learning of U.S. students abroad Journal of Studies in International Education, Vol. 11, 392 – 399
This article traces the outlines of a profound and ongoing change n U.S. attitudes towards study abroad. The author chronicles the shift from a Junior Year Abroad paradigm that governed study abroad theory and practice as recently as two decades ago to an emerging Student Learning paradigm, and argues that there is a widening gulf between what U.S. study abroad professionals believe study abroad students should learn and what many study abroad programs aim to provide.
Dolby, N. Reflections on nation: American undergraduates and education abroad Journal of Studies in International Education, 11 (2), 141-156
Study abroad is increasingly a key component of U.S. universities’ efforts to both create and solidify their commitments to international education. This article examines how American undergraduates negotiate their national identity in the context of studying abroad. Although universities often promote study abroad through paradigms that emphasize global awareness, national sentiments and identity are still fundamental elements of how Americans see and position themselves in the world, particularly in the post-September 11 context. Drawing on Craig Calhoun’s scholarship on national identity, the author argues that students negotiate a middle path between what he terms a “thin” (cosmopolitan) and a “thick” (ethnocentric) sense of national identity. In conclusion, the author suggests that although global awareness is a broad and often nebulous pedagogical goal of study abroad, critical reflection on national identity is both obtainable and an important step toward global citizenship.
Stachowski, L.L. & Sparks, T. Thirty years and 2,000 student teachers later:  An overseas student teaching project that is popular, successful, and replicable Teacher Education Quarterly
Dicussion of an Overseas Student Teaching Project at Indiana University-Bloomington that has proven effective as a model for teacher education.
Durrant, Marie Bradshow; Dorius, Cassandra Rasmussen Study abroad survey instruments: A comparison of survey types and experiences Journal of Studies in International Education 11, 1 pp 33-53
This study examines different survey instruments used to assess the experiences of U.S. study abroad participants. Interviews with representatives of the top 20 sending institutions reveals a broad picture of the type of survey instruments used across the United States to assess student experiences. Within this context and based on 19 years of data collection from study abroad participants with four data collection modes (a standard questionnaire with multiple choice and open-ended questions, a multiple choice bubble sheet response format, a scanned form, and a Web-based survey), one university’s experience (Brigham Young) is analyzed in depth to expand on the benefits and drawbacks of specific survey types. Lessons learned about the appropriateness of each type for different institutional goals and situations are presented.

2006

Black, H. Tyrone; Duhon, David L. Assessing the impact of business study abroad programs on cultural awareness and personal development Journal of Education for Business, Vol. 81 Issue 3, 140-144
The authors assessed results from a cultural awareness instrument administered to business student participants at the beginning of a summer study abroad program in London, England, and then again at the program’s conclusion. The data indicated that the program enhanced cultural awareness and personal development. Moreover, additional information from a student survey reinforced the results of the cultural-awareness instrument.
Deardorff, Darla K. Identification and assessment of intercultural competence as a student outcome of internationalization Journal of Studies in International Education 10, 3 pp 241-266
This study seeks to determine a definition and appropriate assessment methods of inter-cultural competence as agreed on by a panel of internationally known intercultural scholars. The study identifies elements of intercultural competence and assessment methods on which both the intercultural scholars and administrators agreed, resulting in the first study to document consensus on intercultural competence. Both groups agree that it is possible to assess degrees of intercultural competence and in so doing, that it is best to use a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods to assess intercultural competence, including interviews, observation, and judgment by self and others. Two models of inter-cultural competence are presented based on the findings of the study.
Goldstein, Susan B.; Kim, Randi I. Predictors of U.S. college students’ participation in study abroad programs: A longitudinal study International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Volume 30, Issue 4, 507–521
This study was designed to identify variables that predict participation in study abroad programs. Students who studied abroad differed significantly from those who did not in terms of concern about completing their major, study abroad expectations, ethnocentrism, prejudice, and foreign language interest. Study abroad expectations and levels of ethnocentrism distinguished participants from nonparticipants in a binary logistic regression analysis. These findings suggest that participation in international study may be facilitated in part by interventions that seek to modify expectations, reduce ethnocentrism and prejudice, and help students understand the value of language study.
Lamb, William B.: Huq, Faizul Escalation of the study-abroad experience:  Lessons from a hyper-intensive integrated learning program Journal of Teaching in International Business, 17(1-2), 103-123
The authors discuss an innovative study-abroad program implemented by a large university in the Midwestern United States. In partnership with a French business school, a program was established incorporating project-based learning, a multi-national student population, and a three-month residency in France by U.S.-based students and faculty. Specific examples are discussed, and recommendations made, with respect to curricular issues, partner selection, technological issues, institutional support, contingency planning, and daily living. The results of an open-ended survey of student participants are also discussed.
Ling, Lorraine; Burman, Eva; Cooper, Maxine; Ling, Peter (A)broad teacher education Theory into Practice, Vol. 45: 143-149
Looks at international teacher education students in Australia. Concludes such graduates are more cosmopolitan and open to diversity than teachers who remain at home for their education.
McLaughlin, Jacqueline S. and D. Kent Johnson Assessing the Field Course Experiential Learning Model: Transforming Collegiate Short-term Study Abroad Experiences into Rich Learning Environments Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Vol. XII: 65-85
Paige, Michael R.; Cohen, Andrew D.; Kappler, Barabara; Chi, Julie C.; Lassegard, James P. Maximizing study abroad a student’s guide to strategies for language and culture learning and use Minneapolis, MN: Board of Regents University of Minnesota
Aimed at students who want to make the most of their study abroad experience, this flexible and user-friendly guide helps students identify and use a wide variety of language and culture learning strategies. The Guide begins with three inventories designed to help students be more aware of how they currently learn language and culture. The following sections of the guide provide students with tools and creative activities that they can use to enhance their favored learning strategies and try out unfamiliar ones. Students can use this guide as they prepare for study abroad, during their experience, and once they return.
Poole, Dennis L.; Davis, Tamara S. Concept mapping to measure outcomes in study abroad programs Social Work Education, Vol 25 (1), 61-77
Faculty efforts to measure outcomes in study abroad programs typically fall short of current expectations for measurable results and increased competencies. Part of the problem stems from the dual challenge of conducting rigorous, objective assessment of these programs without losing the rich, subjective meaning of the cultural experience for student growth and development. The concept mapping method developed by Trochim is a potentially powerful tool for overcoming this challenge, allowing evaluators to utilize qualitative and quantitative research designs simultaneously. This paper illustrates the use of the method in an American social work study abroad program based in Mexico.
Toncar, Mark F.; Ried, Jane S. & Anderson, Cynthia R. Perceptions and preferences of study abroad:  Do business students have different needs? Journal of Teaching in International Business, 17( 1-2), 61-80
This research compares the study-abroad perceptions and preferences of business and non-business majors. The results suggest that the two groups have somewhat different motivations for studying abroad. On balance, business students appear more pragmatic than their non-business counterparts, expressing greater concern for financial issues, and the effects of study abroad on both graduation dates and future job prospects. However, the two groups expressed virtually unanimous agreement when asked to describe their specific preferences regarding a study-abroad program. The results suggest that although the two groups seem driven by different motivations, their study-abroad needs may be satisfied by a single, carefully designed program.
Wells, Ryan Nontraditional study abroad destinations: Analysis of a trend Frontiers:  Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Vol. 13, 113-133
Students are responding favorably to the increase in study abroad opportunities in non-traditional destinations (Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle Easter. Examining current literature, policy, and theory about such study abroad, the author overlays this onto common rationales for study abroad and concludes that non-traditional destinations can meet these on student, societal, and institutional levels. Empirical research is needed, however, and thus the author suggests six possible areas for inquiry.
Wood,Megan; Atkins, Marsha Immersion in another culture: One strategy for increasing cultural competency Journal of Cultural Diversity; Spring 2006, Vol. 13 Issue 1, p50-54, 5p.
Educating nursing students in the United States to be culturally competent is a challenge. Undergraduate and graduate nursing students, including nurse-midwifery students were paired with faculty on a short-term transcultural nursing experience in Choluteca, Honduras. Students provided health screenings, prenatal assessments, and birth attendance. Learning objectives were designed to improve cultural competency in the healthcare setting for nursing students. A case study exemplar in the labor and delivery setting is presented. As a result of the cultural immersion experience, the student demonstrates versatility and flexibility in clinical practice, reflecting the skills necessary to adapt interventions to populations and circumstances.

2005

Fobes, Catherine Taking a critical pedagogical look at travel study abroad: A classroom with a view Teaching Sociology. Vol. 33, no. 2, 181-194.
This study proposes a critical study approach to travel-study abroad by presenting a case study of a unique three week intensive class taught in Cusco, Peru. The study applies Kaufman’s (2002) reflection model to student learning. Sociology students are paired with native Spanish speakers and provided homestays to enhance intercultural engagement.
Hadis, Benjamin F. Gauging the impact of study abroad:  How to overcome the limitations of a single-cell design Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, vol. 30, no. 1, 3-19
This article reports on a research designed aimed at overcoming the difficulties of not having a control group in research on study abroad learning outcomes, which makes it difficult to determine if growth resulted from study abroad itself or from maturation.  Participants had studied abroad and were asked to respond to a series of questions from two perspectives:  thinking back to their state of mind prior to studying abroad, and their current thinking in response to the questions.  Study abroad increased participants’ “world-mindedness,” findings similar to those of Carlson et al. (1991). Further, because there were not statistically significant differences between older and younger study abroad participants, the author concludes growth can be attributed to study abroad in itself.
Kim, Randi I.; Goldstein Susan B. Intercultural attitudes predict favorable study abroad expectations of U.S. college students Journal of Studies in International Education, 9, 265-278
How are intercultural attitudes associated with favorable expectations about study abroad participation?  282 U.S. 1st-year college students completed a questionnaire that included measures of ethnocentrism, intercultural communication apprehension, language interest and competence, prejudice, intolerance of ambiguity, and expectations about study abroad. Favorable expectations about study abroad were best predicted by levels of language interest, followed by low ethnocentrism and low intercultural communication apprehension, with female respondents significantly more likely than males participants to have positive expectations of study abroad.  These findings addressing intergroup attitudes may increaes interest in study abroad, as will helping students understand the value of language study.
Lewis, Tammy L.; Niesenbaum, Richard A. Extending the stay: Using community-based research and service learning to enhance short-term study abroad Journal of Studies in International Education, vol. 9, no. 3, 251-264
The authors present an assessment of their short-term study abroad program, Environmental and Cultural Conservation in Latin America. The authors show that STSA programs appeal to students not currently choosing to go abroad. The authors use four specific strategies to create outcomes that allow them to meet some of the goals of longer term study abroad. These strategies include (a) making links to campus coursework, (b) conducting community-based research, (c) participating in community service learning, and (d) emphasizing research skills and interdisciplinary connections. The assessment showed that STSA resulted in altered course of study, subsequent travel or study abroad, increased interest in interdisciplinary studies, and influenced perceptions regarding globalization.
Lindsey, Elizabeth W. Study abroad and values development in social work students Journal of Social Work Education, 40, 229-250
This article reports on values development among U.S. and Scottish social work students who participated in a study-abroad program. Six themes emerged: opening the mind to new ways of thinking; awareness and insight into one’s own values and beliefs; social awareness and challenges to societal values and beliefs; appreciation of difference, cultural sensitivity, and anti-discriminatory practice; social justice; and professional identity development. Implications for social work study-abroad programs and future research are discussed.
Norris, Emily Muhajeri; Dwyer, Mary M. Testing assumptions: The impact of two study abroad program models Frontiers:  Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Vol. 11: 121-142
The article reports findings from a longitudinal study conducted by the study abroad provider IES with program alumni on the long-term benefits of hybrid and facilitated direct enrollment programs. The data reveal that both kinds of program yield similar benefits in terms of intercultural awareness, personal growth, and academic attainment. However, direct enrollment yields more sustained impact in terms of continued contacts with host-country nationals, while hybrid programs have greater impact on international career development, continued language use, and appreciation of arts, culture, and foreign language learning.
Pellegrino Aveni, Valeria A. Study abroad and second language use: Constructing the self Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press
This book explores the problems faced by language students when the study abroad, when, needing to express themselves in a second language and present themselves to others, they are forced to recreate the “self.” Based on extensive observations of 76 students studying in Russia for one or two semesters as well as interviews with a subset of the students, the author explores the factors that complicate self-presentation and the strategies students use for overcoming these, looking in particular at issues of anxiety, control, age, gender, risk-taking and self-esteem.
Pennington, B. & Wildermuth, S. Three weeks there and back again: A qualitative investigation of the impact of short term travel/study on the development of intercultural communication competency Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, Vol. 34: 166-183
The study takes a qualitative approach to investigating how short-term travel/studies impact development of students’ intercultural competence. Participants included 19 students who traveled to Ireland or China for a three-week travel/study course. Results are discussed according to a modification of the Campina-Bocote (2002) model of intercultural competency that includes the components of knowledge, awareness, motivation, skills, and encounters. Results indicate that the experiential nature of short-term travel/study courses makes them appropriate and effective vehicles for the development of students’ intercultural communication competence.
Peppas, Spero C. Business Study Abroad Tours for Non-Traditional Students: An Outcomes Assessment Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Vol. XI: 143-163
Stronkhorst, R. Learning outcomes of international mobility at two Dutch institutions of higher education Journal of Studies in International Education Winter 2005 vol. 9 no. 4 292-315
This study looked at the outcomes of study abroad of three to four months’ duration in the development of specific competencies and found that the period of study was too short to advance them.  Student motivation and institutional support also appear to influence learning outcomes.
Williams, Tracy Rundstrom Exploring the impact of study abroad on students’ intercultural communication skills:  Adaptability and sensitivity Journal of Studies in International Education, 9, 356-371
This study used a pre and post test to examine the development of intercultural adaptability and intercultural sensitivity among study abroad students and students who remained on campus in the fall 2002 semester.  Using the Cross-Cultural Adaptability Inventory and the Intercultural Sensitivity Index, students assessed their strengths and weaknesses through a self-reported inventory. The study abroad students exhibited a greater change in intercultural communication skills.  Exposure to various cultures was the greatest predictor of intercultural communication skills.

2004

 

Chieffo, Lisa.; Griffiths, Lesa Large-scale assessment of student attitudes after a short-term study abroad program Frontiers:  The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 10, 165-177
This article discusses a large-scale study abroad assessment undertaken at the University of Delaware that examined the degree to which students enrolled in short courses taking place abroad gained more global awareness – no matter the course subject – than counterparts taking the same short course on campus.  The study focused on perceived learning rather than actual learning and defined global awareness as intercultural awareness, personal growth and development, awareness of global interdependence, and functional knowledge of world geography and language. 1,509 January 2003 and 2004 study abroad participants completed a one-page survey, and 827 students taking similar courses on campus.  Students who studied abroad for one month were more confident in their intercultural awareness and functional knowledge than those who stayed at home, engaged in more international activities, and described their education in much broader and non-academic categories.
Deardorff, Darla K. The identification and assessment of intercultural competence as a student outcome of internationalization at institutions of higher education in the United States North Carolina:  North Carolina State University. EdD. Dissertation.
The purpose of this study was to determine a definition and appropriate assessment methods of intercultural competence as agreed upon by a panel of nationally-known intercultural experts. This information was validated by a sample of higher education administrators.  Elements of intercultural competence and assessment methods were identified upon which both the intercultural experts and administrators agreed.  Preference was for a general definition of intercultural competence although the definition continues to evolve as scholars refine the term further through on-going research. Both groups agreed that it is possible to assess degrees of intercultural competence, ideally by using a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods to assess intercultural competence, including interviews, observation, and judgment by self and others. Two models of intercultural competence, along with an assessment guide on intercultural competence, are presented based on the findings.
DiBiasio, David; Mello, Natalie A. Multi-level assessment of program outcomes:  Assessing a nontraditional study abroad program in the engineering disciplines Frontiers:  The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 10, 237-252
This article discusses multi-level assessment of a Global Perspective Program at Worcester Polytechnic University in which engineering students earn both general education and major credits while engaged in engineering projects abroad that employ situated learning.  Assessment begins with the application process, while a variety of assessment tools are used while the students are abroad to evaluate the quality of the group projects in which the students are engaged, as well as the process used by the students. A review of project reports allows for program level assessment.  The quality of projects conducted abroad is consistently higher than those conducted on campus; steps are being taken to improve the latter by providing the same kinds of feedback and monitoring that occur abroad.
Dolby, Nadine Encountering an American self:  Study abroad and national identity Comparative Education Review, 48, 150-173
The author discusses how a group of American students studying abroad in Australia in 2001 negotiated their “American” identity and argues that the “encounter with an American self” was the most significant part of their study abroad. Post-study abroad interviews were conducted after 9/11.  She argues that the students’ national identities “shifted from a passive to active identification” and that they became aware of how others outside the U.S. shape America, and that some students were able to reconcile “nation” with “state.” She concludes that the encounter with their “American” selves opened the potential for the students to understand America as a post-national formation “grounded in multiplicity and openness rather than singularity and closure.”
Dwyer, Mary M. More is better: The impact of study abroad program duration Frontiers: Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Vol. 10: 151-164
This article reports on a longitudinal study conducted by the study abroad provider IES with IES alumni.  The findings show that full-year study abroad produces benefits sustainable as long as 50 years on factors such as continued language use, academic attainment, intercultural and personal development, and career choices.  While long term study abroad appears to provide the most benefit, the study results indicate well-structured 6-week summer programs benefit participants as much as semester-long programs.
Engle, Lilli; Engle, John Assessing language acquisition and intercultural sensitivity development in relation to study abroad program design Frontiers: Interdisiplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Vol. 10: 219-236
This article reports findings from an 8-semester study of the impact program design at the American University Center of Provence on French language acquisition and cross-cultural development.  The study used the Test d’Evaluation de Francais (TEF) and the Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) and found that gains in language acquisition are not necessarily matched by intercultural development.  Further, students studying abroad for two semesters made fewer gains in language proficiency in the second semester, but more gains in intercultural development.  The small sample size and lack of a control group mean the findings are suggestive.
Freed, Barbara F.; Segalowitz, Norman and Dan P.  Dewey Context of learning and second language fluency in French: Comparing regular classroom, study abroad, and intensive domestic immersion programs Studies in Second Language Acquisition, Vol. 26: 275-301
This study compares the gains in oral fluency by French language learners in 1) formal language classrooms at the home (AH) institution, 2) an intensive summer immersion (IM) program, and 3) a study abroad (SA) setting. Findings:  (a) The IM group made the most gains, while the SA group’s gains were statistically significant only for speech fluidity. The AH group made no significant gains. (b) The IM students reported that they spoke and wrote French significantly more hours per week than the other two groups. They also used less English than the SA and AH groups. (c) Writing outside of class was significantly associated with oral fluidity gains.
Ingraham, Edward C.; Peterson, Debra L. Assessing the impact of study abroad on student learning at Michigan State University Frontiers:  The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 10, 83-100
A three-phase project at Michigan State University aimed to establish an on-going assessment of study abroad learning outcomes focusing on intellectual and personal growth, intercultural awareness, and professional development. Impacts on students were the focus of all three phases, however, Phase II also looked at the impact on faculty and budgets, while Phase III added impacts on the university.  Mixed methods were used to assess student learning:  student self-assessment pre and post study abroad, journals, focus groups, and articles written by students (Tales from Abroad).  Faculty observations of student learning were also gathered, along with pre- and post-study abroad surveys using likert scales. Institutional data were drawn on to give a more complete picture of study abroad.
Kinginger, Celeste; Farrell, Kathleen Assessing developments of meta-pragmatic awareness in study abroad Frontiers:  The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 10, 19-42
This article explores a methodology for assessing learners’ meta-pragmatic awareness of variation in French language use and was part of a larger study sponsored by the Center for Advanced Language Proficiency Education and Research at Penn State University in 2003. The test case for the article is learners’ awareness and use of address form, in this case, the French ‘tu’ and ‘vous’. Rather than governed by a clear set of rules, the use of these is ambiguous and creates meanings about appropriateness and social context. The study looked at how six learners studying abroad in France interpreted the forms, and how the interpretations changeed over time and with different social experiences while abroad.
Kitsantas, Anastasia Studying abroad: The role of college students’ goals on the development of cross-cultural skills and global understanding College Student Journal, Vol. 38 Issue 3,441-452
This study examined the broader impact that study abroad programs have on students’ cross-cultural skills and global understanding and the role that students’ goals for participating in study abroad programs play on the development of these outcomes.  The results showed that overall students’ cross-cultural skills and global understanding improved; but students’ goals to study abroad influenced the magnitude of these outcomes. Namely, only the first factor (cross-cultural competence) significantly predicted students’ global understanding and cross-cultural skills. Based on these findings, specific recommendations are provided to university officials and policy makers involved in study abroad programs.
Mendelson, Vija G. Hindsight is 20/20: Student perceptions of language learning and the study abroad experience Frontiers:  The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 10, 43-63
This article reports on a study of perceptions of student participants in a 2002 4-week summer program and a fall 2002 14-week program, both in Spain. A follow-up study was conducted with 5 of the 14-week program participants who subsequently also participated in a spring 2003 18-week program in Spain.  Four instruments were used:  the ACTFL Oral Proficiency Interview, the Language Proficiency Self-Evaluation, the Entrance Language Contact Profile (LCP). and the Exit LPC.  Additionally, the students kept language journals consisting of responses to thirteen guided questions, three time/place maps, and one mental map.  In the follow-up study, students wrote a series of three reflective essays on how their prior study abroad experience affected their choices in their current program.  Student assessments of their language proficiency pre-program were consistently exaggerated, however, once on site, they were more realistic based on their journals, with the students studying abroad longer more able to realistically assess their language proficiency.  Students on the shorter program were more disappointed in the gains they actually made than the students who studied abroad for a longer period, and both sets of students, once abroad, realized that classroom contact played a more important role in their language gains than anticipated.  Students on the longer program reported having more contacts with Spaniards, although pre-program, all students felt that such contacts would be the best way to advance their language proficiency.  Students who studied abroad longer also reported more personal development, and felt they had made the most improvement in their speaking abilities.  In contrast, the seven-week program students felt their listening skills advanced the most.  The author concludes that length does matter when it comes to language learning abroad.
Orahood, Tammy; Kruze, Larisa.; Pearson, Denise E. The impact of study abroad on business students’ career goals Frontiers:  The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 10, 117-130
This study looked at the career plans of students in Indiana University’s Kelley School of Business, comparing plans of students who had studied abroad and those who had not.  Three questions were examined:  whether returned study abroad students were more likely to desire careers with an international dimension that their counterparts who remained at home, whether returned study abroad students considered study abroad an asset in the job search, and whether language learning increased international interest. Junior and senior business students responded to an instrument designed for the study that included both open and closed questions.  42% of the 198 respondents had studied abroad for 6 or more weeks, and of these 96% reported that study abroad had impacted their career plans. Further, 82% of them were interested or strongly interested in working abroad, compared with 52% of the non-study abroad participants.  The study abroad students were also far more likely to discuss their international learning (whether it took place in the U.S. or abroad) in the job search process.
Quezada, R. L. Beyond educational tourism:  Lessons learned while student teaching abroad International Education Journal 5(4), 458-465
Based on the literature and a survey of current practices, this article proposes questions Schools of Education should consider when developing study abroad programs for future teachers.
Schmidt-Rinehart, Barbara.C.; Knight, Susan M. The homestay component of study abroad:  Three perspectives Foreign Language Annuals, vol. 37 (2), 254-262
Although the “homestay” has long been considered a key factor in the study abroad experience, it is one of the least examined components of foreign study. In an effort to explore this issue from various perspectives, this study targeted several programs in Spain and Mexico with interviews of host families, students, and housing directors. Each group’s perspective on key issues such as adjustment, common problems, and the “homestay advantage” was probed via on-site interviews and questionnaires. Results showed that the majority of the information reported by one group was normally corroborated by the other two, and all groups felt the homestay enhanced the study abroad experience.
Segalowitz, Norman; Freed, Barbara F. Studies in second language acquisition Studies in Second Language Acquisition, Vol. 26: 173-199
This study investigates the role of context of learning in second language (L2) acquisition. The results show that in some respects learners in the SA context made greater gains, both in terms of temporal and hesitation phenomena and in oral proficiency as measured by the OPI, than learners in the AH context. There were also, however, significant interaction effects and correlational patterns indicating complex relationships between oral proficiency, cognitive abilities, and language contact. The results demonstrate the importance of the dynamic interactions that exist among oral, cognitive, and contextual variables.
Segalowitz, Norman; Freed, Barbara F.; Collentine, J. Lafford, B. Lazar, N.; Diaz-Campos, M. A comparison of Spanish second language acquisition in two different learning contexts: Study abroad and the domestic classroom Frontiers:  The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 10, 1-18
This study discussed here was part of a larger research project whose findings were published elsewhere in 2004. The project focused on differences in language acquisition between students who study abroad and who stay on campus, predictors of success, and environmental factors associated with study abroad. This study used questionnaires, interviews, and computer-based tasks at the beginning and end of the semester to compare Spanish language gains between 20 students remaining on campus and 26 who studied abroad in Alicante.  All students made gains in oral proficiency, but study abroad students made more while also gaining in oral fluency.  Grammatically, the study abroad students were no more advanced that those on campus, although their narrative ability was better.  However, the study abroad students used fewer communication strategies.  Unexpectedly, home stays correlated negatively with gains in how fast the learner could shift attention.
Sercu, Lies Assessing intercultural competence: A framework for systematic test development in foreign language education and beyond Intercultural Education; March 2004, Vol. 15 Issue 1, 73-89, 17p
In this paper, a framework is presented for the systematic development of assessment tools. The paper first addresses the question of why the assessment of intercultural competence is important. Secondly, basic definitions and foundations regarding intercultural competence are outlined, and the implications for the assessment of intercultural competence are discussed. Thirdly, a framework for the assessment of test quality is presented, and a number of criteria that affect the quality of tools for assessing intercultural competence are discussed. Finally, the framework is applied to two existing approaches to the assessment of intercultural competence commonly used in foreign language education.
Sutton, Richard C.; Rubin, Donald L. The GLOSSARI project:  Initial findings from a system-wide research initiative on study abroad learning outcomes Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 10, 65-82
This article is a first report on a system-wide initiative to document study abroad learning outcomes and focuses on a compares specific learning outcomes between study abroad participants and non-participants at 16 varying public institutions of  higher education.  students who had studied abroad showed greater functional knowledge (that is, the ability to accomplish tasks and problem solve in unfamiliar contexts).  Study abroad students also had more knowledge of global interdepedence, although this depended on the major; education majors who studied abroad did not score higher than education majors who stayed at home. Knowledge of cultural relativism also increased when students studied abroad, although not across all majors; business students who studied abroad did not score higher in this area than those who did not. Study abroad students were also more knowledgeable about world geography.  Finally, verbal acumen, knowledge of interpersonal accommodation, and knowledge of cultural sensitivity were not affected by study abroad.
Tonkin, Humphrey; Quiroga, Diego  A qualitative approach to the assessment of international service learning Frontiers:  The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 10,131-149
From 2001-2004, the Ford Foundation supported a study of the impact of the Partnership for Service Learning on its student participants, the agencies in which students are placed for service learning, and the institutions hosting partnership programs.  This article reports findings from the study of impacts on student participants.  Interviews and focus groups were conducted with 17 alumni who had participated in the program over a 15 year period and focused on the transformative aspects of service learning and cross-cultural experiences.  Study subjects also met together with the researches to reflect their experiences and the meanings of these before individual interviews took place. Findings indicated that participants experienced reverse culture shock upon return home, were transformed in terms of their moral and intellectual characters, and gained a critical perspective on American values, norms, behaviors, and beliefs. Additional, participation in Partnership programs impacted career choices, increased participants sense of self-sufficiency, and led to more informed leadership.
Trooboff, Stevan; Cressey, William; Monty, Susan  Does study abroad grading motivate students? Frontiers:  The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 10, 201-217
Conventional wisdom suggests that the more grades earned during study abroad impact students’ academic transcript at home, the more students will devote themselves to their academic work while abroad.  It is also assumed that students will earn higher grades for their study abroad courses if the grades count in the home school academic record.  The authors examined the academic records of 551 fall 2003 participants in CIEE programs and found that whether or not the grades counted, students who performed better before studying abroad also performed better than other students during study abroad.  Interestingly, students whose study abroad grades appeared on the home school transcript were most motivated to perform well; however, those whose grades were averaged into the home school GPA were less motivated.  Students whose grades were posted on transcripts (but not included in the cumulative GPA) also earned higher grades.  The authors conclude that the most accurate indicator of grades earned during study abroad is grades earned before study abroad, and that included grades earned abroad in the cumulative GPA may be counter productive.
Vande Berg, Michal; Balkcum, Al, Scheid, Mark; Whalen, Brian The Georgetown university consortium project:  A report from the halfway mark Frontiers:  The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 10, 101-116
This article discusses the research design for a three-year assessment project conducted by education abroad professionals at Georgetown University, the University of Minnesota, Rice University and Dickinson College that looked at learning outcomes in three domains:  second language oral proficiency, intercultural sensitivity, and disciplinary learning.  The study also looked at how study abroad learning environments impact outcomes.  Partners in the study included CIEE, IES, the University of Pittsburgh, and the American University Center in Provence.  The research employed the Simulated Oral Proficiency Interview (SOPI), the Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI), and interviews focused on the development of four desired competencies shared across a range of disciplines.

2003

DeDee, Linda S.; Steward, Stephanie The effect of student participation in international study Journal of Professional Nursing, 19, 237-242
This study sampled 38 alumni of a two-week comparative nursing program in England and France offered by the Univesity of Wisconsin Oshkosh to determine the impact of participation on the professional nurse role, international perspectives, personal development, and intellectual development. The instrument used in the study was the International Education Survey (IES) developed at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire School of Nursing.
Engle, Lilli; Engle, John Study abroad levels: Toward a classification of program types Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, IX (Fall), 1-20
The authors suggest a classification system of study abroad program types, arguing that unless it is possible to distinguish between program types, no meaningful assessment can take place.  Further, the authors focus on culture-based study abroad rather than knowledge-transfer study abroad, and the degree to which programs facilitate reflective interaction with host cultures. They propose seven elements with which to distinguish program design, and five levels of programs, based on the degree of reflective cultural interaction, that range from study tours to cross-cultural immersion.
Merva, Mary Grades as incentives:  A quantitative assessment with implications for study abroad programs Journal of Studies in International Education, 7, 149-156
This article uses a unique data set of 436 students enrolled in an American university located in Europe composed of approximately 50% study-abroad students and 50% degree-seeking students to examine whether there is a significant difference in semester grade point average (GPA) outcomes between students whose grades are averaged into their cumulative GPA with those who take courses on a pass/fail basis. Using linear regression models controlling for academic ability as well as other relevant variables, the study finds that students whose grades are averaged into their cumulative GPA are estimated to have an increase in the mean semester GPA of .36 points, or 11.4% above the average. For study-abroad students who take courses on a pass/fail basis, the results suggest that academic incentives are adversely affected by this grade transfer policy.
Paige, R Michael; Jacobs-Cassutob, Melody; Yershovaa, Yelena A;, DeJaegherea, Joan Assessing intercultural sensitivity: an empirical analysis of the Hammer and Bennett Intercultural Development Inventory International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Vol. 27, Issue 4, 467–486
This article reports the results of the authors’ psychometric analysis of the Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) (The intercultural development inventory manual. Intercultural Communication Institute, Portland, OR, 1998). The study had two major research objectives: to examine the empirical properties of the IDI and to generate a single, composite IDI score that could be used for research and training (participant profiling/diagnostic) purposes.
Wiers-Jensen Norwegian students abroad: Experiences of students from a linguistically and geographically peripheral European country Studies in Higher Education, 28 (4), 391-411
This article presents results from an exploratory survey into the experiences and viewpoints of Norwegian students abroad. The students seem highly capable in adapting to new situations, and the vast majority are very satisfied with their sojourn. They find studying abroad academically advantageous, and they put much emphasis on the social, personal, linguistic and cultural rewards they acquire in addition to professional skills. Compared to students in Norway, those studying abroad are more satisfied with their educational institution, and they put more effort into their studies. The high level of satisfaction can be interpreted as a consequence of ‘pull’ motives for studying abroad, combined with relatively low economic, academic, social, cultural and linguistic barriers.

2002

Aguilar, A. L. & Gingerich, O. Experiential pedagogy for study abroad: Educating for global citizenship Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 8 (Winter 2002)
This article argues that experiential learning activities must be incorporated into study abroad program design if significant learning is to place. Furthermore, assessment activities are required that both help the student understand what has been learned and provide information on how to improve programs.
Bacon Learning the rules: Language development and cultural adjustment during study abroad Foreign Language Annals, Volume 35, Issue 6, 637–646
A student in the first semester of her year-long program in Mexico participated in an ethnographic study of language development and cultural and academic adjustment. Data included speech and writing samples, class and field trip observations, focus group meetings, exams, class evaluations, and interviews with professors. The data reveal that the most dramatic change in her language proficiency came about as she learned the “rules,” both societal and academic, that allowed her to function within the culture. However, despite the claim that informal experiences were more important than formal ones, there was a dynamic interplay between experiences inside and outside the classroom, such that each fostered change in the context of the other. It is suggested that encouraging students to talk and write about their experiences facilitates both cultural adjustment and language growth.
Cushner, K. & Mahon, J. Overseas student teaching:  Affecting personal, professional and global competencies in an age of globalization Journal of Studies in International Education 6(1), 44-58
Today’s teachers need immersion in other cultures in order to be able to transmit to their students international knowledge and experience.  However, schools of education pay little attention to this need.  This study examined the nature of the international student teaching experience and its impact on the professional and personal development of new teachers. Fifty returned student teachers reported how such an experience affected them personally as well as professionally. Findings reflect the study-abroad literature in general, suggesting that an overseas experience has immense benefits for the student teacher. Students reported impact on their beliefs about self and others as evidenced through increased cultural awareness and improved self-efficacy, as well as professional development in terms of global- mindedness.
Einbeck, Kandace Using literature to promote cultural fluency in study abroad programs Die Unterrichtspraxis / Teaching German, 35 (1) 59-67
The article discusses a literature course developed for students studying abroad in Austria with the goal of helping them develop both cultural and linguistic fluency.  Beyond introducing students to literature in German, the course aimed to introduce students to the concept of cultural awareness and strategies to develop it, so that eventually they could see Austria through Austrians’ eyes.
Gray, K.S.; Murdock, G.K.; Stebbins, C.D Assessing study abroad’s effect on an international mission Change, 34, 44-51
Describes Missouri Southern State College’s assessment of its study abroad program as an example of how one institution has attempted to trace the effects that the program has had on student.
Hill, Jenny; Woodland, Wendy An evaluation of foreign fieldwork in promoting deep learning:  A preliminary investigation Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, vol. 27, 539-555.
This article defines and evaluates the role of foreign fieldwork in promoting deep learning by university undergraduates of geography and environmental management. Empirical results show that students generally rose to the challenge of predictive-analytical learning to produce grades congruent with their Level 2 results. While some students began to question the acquisition of knowledge and came to realise its provisional nature, others met with considerable difficulty in achieving deeper understanding through problem-solving activity. Understanding was ultimately individually constructed and often assessment-driven. The academic integrity of fieldwork must be clarified in order to substantiate its continued place in higher education.
Wilkinson, Sharon The omnipresent classroom during summer study abroad:  American students in conversation with their French hosts The Modern Languages Journal, 86, 157-173.
Investigates both speech and speaker perceptions through tape-recorded conversations between summer study abroad students and their French hosts, as well as through interviews and observations. Findings indicate that natives and nonnatives alike relied heavily on classroom roles and discourse structures to manage their interactions, calling into question the assumption that language use with a native-speaking host family liberates students from classroom limitations.

2001

Barron, Anne Acquisition in interlanguage pragmatics: Learning how to do things with words in a study abroad context Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins Publishing Company
The longitudinal investigation which provides the basic material for this book consists of a corpus of requests, offers and refusals of offers elicited from Irish learners of German over a ten-month study abroad period using production questionnaires and a variety of metapragmatic instruments.
Douglas, Ceasar; Jones-Rikkers, Catherine G. Study abroad programs and American student worldmindedness Journal of Teaching in International Business, 13 (1), 55-66
The authors surveyed students participating in Study Abroad Programs (SAPs) designed to increase students’ exposure to different cultural contexts. The study measures worldmindedness, the extent to which individuals value global perspectives on various issues. It was hypothesized that participation in a SAP and the cultural difference between a student’s point-of-origin and SAP location will have a positive impact on the development of worldmindedness. The results support the research hypotheses, and offer insight into preparing business students for a culturally diverse workplace.

2000

Bell, Moira Preparing non-specialist language students for study abroad The Language Learning Journal, 21 (1), 19-25
This paper records the results of a study involving non-specialist language students, who spent a period abroad as part of degree programmes in business or administration studies. The aim was to gain insights into the experience of students for whom a priority during the period abroad was to continue study of core subjects other than languages and to find out what linguistic challenges they faced and how they felt they coped.
Ife, Anne Language learning and residence abroad:How self-directed are students? The Language Learning Journal, 22 (1), 30-37
This article discusses the extent to which language learners exploit the possibilities for language learning when they go to study for a year in a foreign country. It outlines the experience of a typical cohort of students, notes the difficulties experienced and highlights a lack of awareness among many learners of how to exploit to the full the possibilities of the residence-abroad context, although they are frequently conscious of weaknesses in their performance on their return. Possible answers are discussed and a specific response is proposed, based on a method for raising learners’ strategy awareness and thus helping them to maximise the language gains they make.
Ryan, Marilyn E.; Twibell, Renee S. Concerns, values, stress, coping, health and educational outcomes of students who studied abroad International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 24, 409-435
This study examined the nature of stressful situations experienced, relationships between stress-related variables, coping and health, and educational outcomes in students who studied abroad during the 1994/95 academic year.  476 students participated and were measured before, during, and after the study abroad.   The study also examined theoretical propositions useful in cross-cultural training for students who study abroad.
Schroth, M. L.; McCormack, W.A. Sensation seeking and need for achievement among study abroad students  The Journal of Social Psychology, 47, 191-203.
The article examines sensation-seeking and need-for-achievement personality traits among alumni from 14 countries in the California State University’s International Program. Sensation seeking is characterized by risk taking and a need for a variety of different sensations and experiences. Need for achievement purports to measure intrinsic achievement motivation. In all, 378 participants returned completed questionnaire forms. The study-abroad men had significantly higher scores on the Experience Seeking scale but lower scores on the Thrill and Adventure Seeking, Disinhibition and Boredom Susceptibility subscales and on total scores. There is no significant differences between the female samples on the Boredom Susceptibility subscale. On the Work, Mastery and Competitiveness subscales, the study-abroad men had scores significantly higher than the norms for a comparable U.S. population in a previous study. The present data also provide inferences with which to speculate about the cognitive processes that may explain different ways that individuals respond to cross-cultural situations.

1999

Gillespie, Joan; Braskamp, Larry; Braskamp, David Evaluation and study abroad: Developing assessment criteria and practices to promote excellence Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 5, 101-127
This article describes the process in which IES MAP was created to evaluate study abroad programs at a time when neither a uniform set of educational standards nor a protocol for evaluating study abroad programs existed in the U.S..  The study abroad provider IES thus established a task force to create Model Assessment Practice (MAP) to measure and improve quality in existing programs, review programs, and guide the development of new programs. The aim was not to standardize programs but to ensure quality across programs that are integrated into local cultures. Evaluations would focus on the student learning environment, student learning and intercultural competence, resources for academic and student support. Grounded in organizational learning, the project involved staff in the project development and implementation and evaluation is being tied to allocation of resources to improve quality.

1998

Immetman, Aubrey; Schneider, Peter Assessing student learning in study abroad programs:  A conceptual framework and methodology for assessing student learning in study-abroad programs Journal of Studies in International Education, 2, 59-80
Conventional wisdom dictates that international education promotes student development and the acquisition of worthwhile knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Accrediting agencies, however, demand concrete evidence to substantiate such claims. This article describes the development of a conceptual frame work and methodology for the academic assessment of student learning in study-abroad programs with reference to knowledge acquisition, skills acquisition, attitudinal development, and social development. Conceptually, the framework is derived from the developmental theory of Erik Erikson and the taxonomies of educational objectives developed by Benjamin Bloom and his associates. Methodologically focus groups are employed to generate assessment data, in a procedure akin to small-group instructional diagnosis (SGID). Based on data collected in two focus groups conducted as a pilot study, more narrowly circumscribed coding categories were constructed within the broader domains of cognitive learning, behavioral skills acquisition, affective learning, and social development. The responses of students in the two pilot groups suggest that educational gains in study-abroad programs occur primarily in the affective and social domains of learning, including values clarification, attitude change, personal development, and social maturity.
Rivers, W.P. Is being there enough? The effects of homestay placements on language gain during study abroad Foreign Language Annals, 31, 492-500
The Second Language Acquisition community tends to believe that homestays can advance language acquisition more than other living arrangements.  This study analyzed data about 2500 study abroad participants using the 1976–1996 American Council of Teachers of Russian Student Records Data Base. Gains made in Speaking, Listening, and Reading of those who lived in dormitories were compared with those in homestays. Homestay students were slightly less likely to gain in speaking proficiency and  less likely to gain in Listening, but more likely to gain in Reading  than those in dormitories.  The results of the study and work in Self-Directed Language Learning and Immersion suggest that homestay students may benefit from training in the management of linguistic input.

1997

Bryan, S. & Sprague, M. The effect of overseas internships on early teaching experiences The Clearing House, 70(4), 199-201
Telephone interviews were conducted with 10 novice teachers who had participated in a teaching internship abroad.  This number represented 25% of participants in the internship program.  The effects of the internship included increased sensitivity to and empathy for students from other cultures and from different language backgrounds, flexibility in teaching practices, and openness to the introduction of new curriculum.
Stachowski, L. & Visconti, V. Adaptations for success:  U.S. student teachers living and teaching abroad International Education, 26, 5-20
A study examined expected and unexpected adaptations made by U.S. student teachers to enhance their experiences in overseas schools, homes, and communities. Subjects were 50 students who participated in Indiana University’s Overseas Student Teaching Project during the spring semester of the 1994–95 academic year and during the fall semester of the 1995–96 academic year. Findings indicated that student teachers found themselves adapting to as many expected challenges as unexpected ones. The implication of these findings is that thorough preparation is needed for any kind of cross-cultural student teaching experience.

1996

Zorn, CeCelia R. The long-term impact on nursing students of participating in international education Journal of Professional Nursing, 112, 106-111
Despite the need to internationalize the nursing curriculum in recognition of the rapidly changing challenges of the 21st century, the long-term effects of international education on nursing students have not been examined. This study was describes the long-term impact of study abroad experiences on baccalaureate graduates. Using a descriptive survey design, data were collected from 27 alumni (88 per cent response rate) who completed the International Education Survey. Although the impact was found to decrease over time, respondents reported the highest impact in enhanced international perspective and increased personal development; lower impact was reported in the professional nurse role and intellectual development dimensions. Students who participated in longer programs (12 to 16 weeks) reported higher long-term impact than those participating in 3- to 4-week programs. Respondents’ age at the time of the international education was positively correlated with personal development. No association was found between the respondents’ year in college in which they participated and reported long-term impact.

1995

Martin, J.N; Bradford, Lisa; Rohrlich, B. Comparing pre-departure expectations and post-sojourn reports:  A longitudinal study of US students abroad International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 19, 97-110.
This article reports the results of a longitudinal investigation, based on a modified expectancy violations model, of expectations of students studying abroad. Two hundred forty-eight student sojourners described their predeparture expectations concerning 13 aspects of overseas living. Upon their return, these same students completed a similar postreturn survey reporting the degree to which their expectations were met or violated. Pre- and postdeparture data were submitted to regression and correlational analyses. There were three major findings. First, an unexpected finding that sojourners consistently reported that expectations were met or positively violated. Second, the fulfillment/ violation of expectations was related to location of sojourn and somewhat to gender, but not to prior intercultural experience. Finally, there was a positive relationship between the violation of expectations and the overall evaluation of the sojourn experience, supporting the expectancy violations model. Implications for future research are presented.
Quinn, L.F., Barr, H., Jarchow, E., Powell, R. and McKay, W.J. International student teaching:  New Zealand and the United States perspectives on schooling Action in Teacher Education, 17(2) 18-27
Six New Zealand and five American education majors completed all or part of a student teaching practicum abroad in an exchange program between Waikato University and the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Their perceptions of teaching in a system different from their own were self documented and examined through a variation of the constant comparative method of data analysis. Seven categories of personal constructs regarding international student teaching and living in another culture were identified. They are: choices, expectations, impressions, procedures, supervision, philosophy, and recommendations. Responses suggest that through their international experiences, students do acquire new attitudes and beliefs to test against the realities they will encounter when they return home to teach in their home country school systems.

1994

Laubscher, Michael R. Encounters with difference:  Student perceptions of the role of out-of-class experiences in education abroad Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group
In this study, 30 1990 participants in Penn State study abroad programs were interviewed about what they learned outside the classroom while abroad. What the students reported they learned fell into three categories:  personal development, perspectives on themselves and the U.S., and the experience of being different.  The author suggests a cross-cultural learning model to take place before, during, and after study abroad that includes experiential learning.

1992

Ginsberg, R.B. Language gains during study abroad:  An analysis of the ACTR data National Foreign Language Center Working Papers, Washington, D.C.: Johns Hopkins University. (EDRS #ED358717)
Results of a systematic analysis of an extensive database on study in the former Soviet Union assembled by the American Council of Teachers of Russian (ACTR) over a period of nearly 20 years are presented. Three issues are emphasized: (1) interrelationships among preprogram language measures; (2) predictors of gain on various criteria; and (3) interrelationships among gains in different modalities. The 658 students for whom data are analyzed  all studied in 4-month ACTR programs. Factors affecting gains are described (e.g., gender, age, and high school and college Russian). Analysis of residuals of gains indicates that gains on all modalities are positively interrelated, that gains in listening, reading, and oral proficiency tend to be associated, and that many students gain on one modality but not on the others.

1991

Opper, Susan Study abroad: A competitive edge for women? Oxford Review of Education, 17 (1), 45-64
This paper examines whether study abroad as part of a bachelor’s degree in law, engineering, business, natural sciences and foreign languages gives graduates a competitive edge in embarking on professional careers. It compares the experience of 172 females and 217 males who graduated from higher education institutions in the UK, France and the Federal Republic of Germany between 1980 and 1984. The study abroad credential did expedite reaching the interview stage to be considered for employment, with essentially no difference by gender. The study abroad programme, unless designed to prepare for well‐defined international positions, was of little direct advantage for males or females in securing employment which initially met their expectations for international work. Although employed on a full‐time basis to a greater extent than males, females were less satisfied with their initial employment. The marketability of the academic specialisation of the degree as such was the most influential factor in obtaining employment. As their careers advanced, the graduates in the sample did increase the intensity of international contacts, calling indirectly upon study abroad skills. The change was greater for males than for females. It is concluded this was because males more quickly sharpened their overall career focus.

1990

Milleret, M. Evaluation and the summer language program abroad The Journal of Higher Education, 47, 191-203
The author argues that summer language study abroad should be different from summer language study on campus, because programs abroad must be given opportunities, in addition to language learning, to assimilate information from the host environment and experiment with it. Assessment tools must, therefore, also differ from those used on campus, as they should give helpful feedback to students on their perceptions of the host  culture as well as language skill development.  A number of evaluation tools are discussed.
Opper, Susan; Teichler, Ulrich; Carlson, Jerry S. Impacts of study abroad programmes on students and graduates London, England: Jessica Kingsley Publishers
This is the second volume of a report on the findings of an international research effort designed to analyze the structures and impact of study abroad programs offered by higher education institutions in France, West Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. This volume focuses primarily upon study abroad program participants, their characteristics and the effects that their experiences have on them.

1988

Carlson, Jerry; Widaman, Keith F. The effects of study abroad during college on attitudes toward other cultures International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Volume 12, Issue 1, 1–17
The purpose of this investigation was to assess changes in attitudes and perceptions toward international understanding by university students who had spent a year of studyabroad at a European university. Consistent with the main hypotheses guiding the study, the results indicated increased levels of international political concern, crosscultural interest, and cultural cosmopolitanism for the studyabroad group. This group also reported more positive, yet also more critical views of the United States than did the comparison group. The results were discussed in terms of the general goals of international educational exchange programs.
Stitsworth, M. The relationship between previous foreign language study and personality change in youth exchange participants. Foreign Language Annals, 13, 131-137
This study looked at potential changes in personality in teenagers during one-month homestays in Japan. The sample consisted of 154 exchangees and 112 control group members who did not travel abroad. The California Psychological Inventory was administered to both groups prior to the exchange, again at its conclusion, and a third time four months later. Antecedent information was collected using a pre-exchange questionnaire. Analysis of covariance was used to determine if the pretest and posttest scores for the two groups were significantly different. Nonparametric tests were used to determine if certain overseas group antecedent subpopulations changed differently. The overseas group increased in flexibility and independence and became less conventional as compared to the control group. Travelers who had studied a foreign language for one or two semesters experienced no significant changes; those with no previous language study and those who had studied a language for three or four semesters changed significantly. Exchangees who were the first member of their family to travel abroad and those who personally paid a high percentage of their trip expenses also changed significantly.

1987

Juhaz, A.M., & Walker, A.M. The impact of study abroad on university students’ perception of self ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED341916

1986

Handel, Bettina; Grove, Neal International student exchange programs – Are the educational benefits real? NAASP Bulletin, 84-90
Educators who have “assumed” that travel and exchange programs abroad are educationally beneficial will breathe easier after reading this article. The authors explain the details of a study that validates scientifically what most people have believed.

1985

Burn, Barbara Research in progress: Does study abroad make a difference? Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning 17 (2) 48-49
Initial findings from the U.S. participation in the Study Abroad Evaluation Project
Kuh, G.K., & Kauffmann, N.L. The impact of study abroad on personal development of college students Journal of International Student Personnel, 2 (May), 6-10
The relationship between selected aspects of personal development and a study abroad experience was investigated using longitudinal data collected before, immediately after, and 1 year after study abroad taking place in 1980-81. The Omnibus Personality Inventory (Form F) was administered to 126 students from a small, midwestern Mennonite college and to a comparison group of 90 students, half of whom came from an eastern Mennonite college and half from a western Mennonite college. The Debriefing Interview Guide was also administered to encourage and guide discussions between a trained interviewer and students after returning from study abroad. Changes in three dimensions of personality functioning were associated with study abroad: increased interest in reflective thought and in the arts, literature, and culture; increased interest in the welfare of others; and increased self-confidence and sense of well being. An increased tolerance for ambiguity and interest in reflective thought combined with greater sensitivity and emotionality, and an increased interest in the esthetic suggest that study abroad can be an important general education component of the liberal arts curriculum.

1984

Armstrong, Gregory K. Life after Study Abroad: A Survey of Undergraduate Academic and Career Choices Modern Language Journal, v. 68, p. 1-6, Spring
Results of a survey sent to 180 undergraduates who had received intensive language instruction (in Mexico) while in high school indicate that study abroad experiences effects attitudes and behavior with regard to language learning and career choices. Survey showed positive change in self-perception; opportunity to gain language fluency; and desire to live, study, and travel in other cross-cultural contexts.

 

1983

Sell, Deborah K. Research on attitude change in U.S. students who participate in foreign study experiences International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 7, 131-147
This study looked at research  on attitude change in U.S. students who participate in foreign study experiences and included five studies utilizing one-time questioning of program participants and 15 articles employing analysis of pre- and postsojourn questionnaires. Unfortunately, attitude change is seldom verified empirically in these works. Possible explanations include loosely structured experimental designs, infrequent use of follow-up studies, the lack of an established theoretical base, and perhaps most importantly, the lack of a consensus concerning what to measure. Suggestions for future research include: the study of specific variables thought to facilitate attitude change, analysis of subgroups of students similar on a particular characteristic or ability, and measurement of behavioral competencies.
Smith, A. International communication through study abroad: Some priorities and pitfalls for future research European Journal of Education 1983 vol. 18, no. 2 139-150
This article suggested that the outcomes of study abroad should be assessed rather than assumed, and organizes possible impacts of study abroad into four categories:  cultural, linguistic, educational, and professional.

1979

Hull IV, W. Frank Undergraduate studies abroad:  Evaluation in the context of U.S. higher education Higher education in Europe, 4 (2), 23-25
In analyzing international student mobility, there is a question which is important from the point of view both of the individuals concerned and of society: what is the value of study abroad? This article deals with the evaluation of student experience in programmes of undergraduate studies abroad within the context of higher education in the United States. The article is based on a paper by W. Frank Hull IV, Associate Research Educator, office of the Chancellor, University of California, Santa Barbara, which was presented at the US International Studies Association in February 1978, in a session entitled “Taking the Measures of Undergraduate Study Abroad, Research and Evaluation.”

1976

Nash, Dennison The personal consequences of a year of study abroad The Journal of Higher Education, 47, 191-203
The effect of study abroad on self-realization was studied among students who spent a junior year abroad in France, using a control group that remained on campus. While assessment undertaken at the end of the year abroad indicated that personality changes had occurred, a later, if limited, assessment showed that most of these had dissipated over time.