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Departmental Program

A study abroad program operated by an academic department (or by a college within a university); often coursework is specific to the discipline of the sponsoring department. In some cases the department bears full administrative responsibility; in others it runs the program through a partnership with the education abroad office.

Developed Countries

The generally richer countries. Rough synonyms include the First World, Industrialized Countries and Global North. There is no complete consensus as to which countries should be included in this category, but the “developed countries” are conventionally defined to include at least Australia, Canada, most of Europe, Israel, Japan, New Zealand, Singapore, the United States, and, increasingly, South Korea and Taiwan. There is a lack of consensus concerning certain countries, including much of Eastern Europe (for example, Albania, Macedonia, or Moldova, or even Russia or Ukraine). Other points of contention include wealthy countries with excessively inequitable income distribution--for example, some of the oil-producing kingdoms of the Arabian Peninsula and the Persian Gulf--as well as Hong Kong (now part of China but still often treated as a separate economy).

Developing Countries

One of a number of different terms used to describe the comparatively poor countries of the world. Neither this nor any of the other terms is entirely satisfactory. The dichotomy between “developing” and “developed” countries seems grounded in ethnocentrism. As an alternative term, Non-Industrialized Countries is increasingly inaccurate as manufacturing operations relocate from rich countries to poor. Third World was coined in the context of the Cold War, the “first” and “second” worlds being the capitalist and communist countries respectively; the term is obsolete today. (Some people have begun speaking of the Two-Thirds World as a synonym, and among others the term Fourth World has gained currency to refer to the poorest of nations.) The Global South, a term gaining some currency in academia, is not literally accurate—for example, it excludes Australia and New Zealand—although it has the advantage of seeming more neutral in tone.

Direct Enrollment

Study at an overseas university without the assistance of external offices such as those of a program provider. Not to be confused with Integrated University Study, for which it is sometimes used as a synonym.


individual differences (e.g., personality, learning styles, and life experiences) and group/social differences (e.g., race/ethnicity, class, gender, sexual orientation, country of origin, and ability, as well as cultural, political, religious, or other affiliations).

  • Note 1 to entry: This definition is by the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U). [3]

Domestic Off-Campus Study

Off-campus study that occurs away from the student’s home institution but within the same country.


(or Length) – The period of a sojourn or education abroad program, excluding the pre-departure preparation or post-return activities.